Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Indo-Iranian languages The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. It consists of four language groups: the Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, and Dardic. The term Aryan languages is also used to refer to the Indo-Iranian languages . The speakers of the Proto-Indo-Iranian language, the hypothetical Proto-Indo-Iranians, are usually associated with the late 3rd millennium BC Sintashta-Petrovka culture of Central Asia. Their expansion is believed to have been connected with the invention of the chariot.
The contemporary Indo-Iranian languages form the largest sub-branch of Indo-European, with more than one billion speakers in total, stretching from Europe (Romani) and the Caucasus (Ossetian) to East India (Bengali and Assamese). SIL in a 2005 estimate counts a total of 308 varieties, the largest in terms of native speakers being Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu, ca. 540 million), Bengali (ca. 200 million), Punjabi (ca. 80 million), Marathi and Persian (ca. 70 million each), Gujarati (ca. 45 million), Pashto (40 million), Oriya (ca. 30 million), Kurdish and Sindhi (ca. 20 million each).

Indo-European topics
Iranian Group:
Indo-Aryan Group:
Dardic languages (sometimes also classified as Indic):
Nuristani languages:

Eastern Iranian

  • Northeastern

    • Avestan (extinct)
      Scythian (extinct)

      • Saka (extinct)
        Sogdian (extinct)
        Bactrian (extinct)

        • Pashto
          Western Iranian

          • Northwestern

            • Dari language of Zoroastrians
              Southwestern ("Persid")

              • Old Persian (extinct)
                Middle Persian (extinct)
                New Persian

                • Tajik

                  • Bukhori
                    Luri / Bakhtiari
                    Vedic Sanskrit
                    Central Zone

                    • Hindustani

                      • Hindi
                        Eastern Zone (Magadhan Prakrit languages)

                        • Angika
                          Northern Zone (Pahari languages)

                          • Nepali
                            Northwestern Zone

                            • Punjabi
                              Southern Zone

                              • Dhivehi / Mahl
                                Western Zone

                                • Gujarati
                                  Ashkunu (Ashkun)
                                  Kamkata-viri (Bashgali)
                                  Vasi-vari (Prasuni)
                                  Kalasha-ala (Waigali)

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Fort Ross is a former Russian settlement in what is now Sonoma County, California in the United States. It is a unique site that has recently been the subject of intensive archaeological investigation, and is designated as a National Historic Landmark. Most of the existing buildings on the site are reconstructions. The only original structure remaining is Rotchev House, the residence of the last manager.
The exact origin of the toponym "Ross" is unknown but it is generally considered to be a poetical shortened version of "Rossiya," which is "Russia" in Russian.

Ivan Alexandrovich Kuskov, a skillful Russian-American Company administrator, served for 22 years in Alaska. He was the founder of Fort Ross and was its colonial administrator from 1812 to 1821.
List of all administrators of the Fort Ross colony:

Ivan A. Kuskov, 1812—1821
Karl J von Schmidt, 1821—1824
Paul I. Shelikhov, 1824—1830
Peter S. Kostromitinov, 1830—1838
Alexander G. Rotchev, 1838—1841 Other meanings

1784Russians settle at Kodiak Island, Alaska.
1799Russians establish a post at Sitka, Alaska.
18061811 — Nikolai Rezanov, representing the Russian-American Company, visits the Presidio of San Francisco and susequently recommends to the Company that a settlement in California be established to supply the Alaskan colonies with food. Ivan Kuskov explores the coast of Alta California.
1812 — Kuskov brought 25 Russians and 80 native Alaskans to the California coast and established Fort Ross.
1821 — Kuskov leaves Fort Ross and is replaced by Karl Schmidt.
1824 — Schmidt leaves Fort Ross and is replaced by Paul Shelikhov.
1830 — Shelikhov leaves Fort Ross and is replaced by Peter Kostromitinov.
1838 — Kostromitinov leaves Fort Ross and is replaced by Alexander Rotchev.
1841 — Rotchev sells Fort Ross to John Sutter.
1906 — The San Francisco earthquake nearly destroys Fort Ross.
1916 — Fort Ross is restored.
1970 — A fire at Fort Ross again nearly destroys the former settlement.
1971 — Fort Ross is once again restored. Fort Ross Buildings

Sunday, April 27, 2008

This article is part of the series:Alliance for Sweden Politics and government of Sweden
Alliance for Sweden (Swedish: Allians för Sverige) is a political alliance in Sweden. It consists of the four centre-right parties in the Riksdag. Although it was formed while in opposition, it achieved a majority in the general election of 17 September 2006, forming the current coalition government.

King: Carl XVI Gustaf

  • Speaker: Per Westerberg

    • Prime Minister: Fredrik Reinfeldt

      • Cabinet

        • Agencies
          Supreme Court

          • Governors
            Administrative Boards
            Sami Parliament
            Elections: 2002 - 2006 - 2010
            Political parties
            Foreign relations
            EU Politics Membership of the Alliance
            Swedish politics has been dominated by the Social Democratic Party for over 70 years. They have been in government for all but nine years (summer of 1936, 1976-1982, 1991-1994) since 1932. The opposition parties decided that this was partly because they did not present a clear and viable alternative government. At a meeting held in the Centre Party leader Maud Olofsson's home in the village of Högfors, the four party leaders decided to form an alliance. The meeting ended on 31 August 2004 with the presentation of a joint declaration outlining the principles under which the four parties intended to fight the election [1]. A year later a similar meeting was held at Christian Democrat leader Göran Hägglund's home in Bankeryd, resulting in the affirmation of the alliance and another declaration [2].

            The Alliance in government

            Sweden general election, 2006
            Government of Sweden
            Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt

Saturday, April 26, 2008

Scots law Flag of Scotland This article is part of the series:Arthur Hamilton, Lord Hamilton Courts of Scotland
Scottish Executive Justice Department

Cabinet Secretary for Justice
Scottish Court Service

College of Justice
Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission
Scottish Prison Service
Civil courts
Privy Council
House of Lords
Court of Session

Lord President
Lords of Session
Sheriff Court

Criminal courts
High Court of Justiciary

Lord Justice-General
Lords Commissioner of Justiciary
Sheriff Court

Sheriff Principal
District Court

Justice of the Peace
Special courts
Court of the Lord Lyon

Lord Lyon King of Arms
Children's Hearings
Criminal justice
Lord Advocate

Crown Office
Advocate Depute
Procurator Fiscal
Advocates and solicitors
Faculty of Advocates

Law Society of Scotland

Arthur Campbell Hamilton, Lord Hamilton, PC (born Glasgow, 10 June 1942), is Scotland's most senior judge. He was chosen as Lord Justice General and Lord President of the Court of Session in November 2005, succeeding Lord Cullen.
Arthur Campbell Hamilton was born in Glasgow and attended Glasgow High School. He studied at the University of Glasgow, Worcester College, Oxford University and Edinburgh University, where he gained an LLB in 1967.
He was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1968 and became a QC in 1982. He was an Advocate Depute (1982–1985), Chairman of the Medical Appeals Tribunals (1988–1992) and President of the Pensions Appeal Tribunal (Scotland) (1992–1995). Over several months in 1992–1993, during the indisposition of the Sheriff Principal of Tayside, Central and Fife, he acted as a temporary Sheriff Principal in that sheriffdom. From 1988 to 1995 he was a Judge of Appeal of the Courts of Appeal of Jersey and Guernsey.
In 1995 he was appointed as a Senator of the College of Justice. Between 1997-2000 he was a full-time commercial judge dedicated to commercial business and responsible for oversight of that aspect of Court of Session business. In January 2002 he was appointed as a Judge of the Inner House of the Court of Session where he sat principally on appellate business.
On 24 November 2005, the Scottish Executive announced that he would succeed Lord Cullen as Lord Justice General and Lord President of the Court of Session. He took up office on 2 December. He took full-time sick leave from April 2006, prompting emergency legislation (the Senior Judiciary (Vacancies and Incapacity) (Scotland) Act 2006) to be passed through the Scottish Parliament in June. He has since returned to work, without the need for the legislation to be invoked.

Friday, April 25, 2008

Best Supporting Actress 1974 Murder on the Orient Express
1982 A Woman Called Golda
Best Actress - Miniseries 1983 A Woman Called Golda
Ingrid Bergman  (pronounced [ˈbærjman] in Swedish, but usually [ˈbɝgmən] in English, IPA notation) (August 29, 1915August 29, 1982) was a three-time Academy Award-winning and two-time Emmy Award-winning Swedish actress. She also won the Tony Award for Best Actress in the first Tony Award ceremony in 1947. She is ranked as the fourth greatest female star of all time by the American Film Institute.

Bergman, named after Princess Ingrid of Sweden , was born in Stockholm, Sweden on August 29, 1915 to a Swedish father, Justus Samuel Bergman, and a German mother, Friedel Adler Bergman. When she was three years old, her mother died. Her father passed away when she was thirteen. She was then sent off to live with an aunt, who died of heart complications only six months later. Afterwards she was raised by another aunt and uncle, who had five children.
At the age of 17, Ingrid Bergman auditioned for and was accepted to the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm. During her first summer break, she was hired at a Swedish film studio, which consequently led to her leaving the Royal Dramatic Theater to work in films full time, after having attended for only one year. Her first film role after leaving the Royal Dramatic Theater was a small part in 1935's Munkbrogreven (She had previously been an extra in the 1932 film Landskamp).
On July 10, 1937, at the age of 21, she married a dentist, Petter Lindström (who would later become a neurosurgeon). On September 20, 1938, she gave birth to a daughter, Pia Lindström.
After a dozen films in Sweden (including En kvinnas ansikte which would later be remade as A Woman's Face with Joan Crawford) and one in Germany, Bergman was signed by Hollywood producer David O. Selznick to star in the 1939 English language remake of her 1936 Swedish language film, Intermezzo. It was an enormous success and Bergman became a star, described as "Sweden's illustrious gift to Hollywood". Some things that set her apart from other female stars in Hollywood at that time were that she did not change her name, her appearance was entirely natural with little to no makeup, and that she was one of the tallest leading ladies.

Early years: 1915-1938
After completing one last film in Sweden and appearing in three moderately successful films in the United States, Bergman joined Humphrey Bogart in the 1942 classic film Casablanca, which remains her best known role.
That same year, she received her first Academy Award nomination for Best Actress for For Whom the Bell Tolls (1943), which was also her first color film. The following year, she won the Academy Award for Best Actress for Gaslight (1944). She received a third consecutive nomination for Best Actress with her performance as a nun in The Bells of St. Mary's (1945). Bergman had been considered for the role of Mother Maria-Veronica in 1944's The Keys of the Kingdom, but the part ultimately went to Rose Stradner, who was then the wife of the film's producer, Joseph Mankiewicz.
Later, she would receive another Best Actress nomination for Joan of Arc (1948), an independent film produced by Walter Wanger and initially released through RKO. Bergman had championed the role since her arrival in Hollywood, which is one of the reasons she had played it on the Broadway stage in Maxwell Anderson's Joan of Lorraine. Partly because of the scandal with Rossellini, the film, based on the Anderson play, was not a big hit, and received disastrous reviews. It was subsequently shorn of 45 minutes, and it was not until its restoration to full length in 1998 and its 2004 appearance on DVD that later audiences could see it as it was intended to be shown.
Bergman also starred in the Alfred Hitchcock films Spellbound (1945), Notorious (1946), and Under Capricorn (1949). Unlike her earlier Hitchcock films, Under Capricorn was a slow-paced costume drama, slow to such a degree that Bergman's reputation and the film's release suffered from this, in addition to the gathering adverse publicity over Bergman's affair with Rossellini.
Between motion pictures, Bergman appeared in the stage plays Liliom, Anna Christie, and Joan of Lorraine. Furthermore, during a press conference in Washington, D.C. for the promotion of Joan of Lorraine, she protested against segregation after seeing it first hand at the theater she was acting in. This led to a lot of publicity and some hate mail.
Ingrid Bergman also went to Alaska during World War II in order to entertain troops. Soon after the war ended, she also went to Europe for the same purpose, where she was able to see the devastation caused by the war. It was also during this time that she began a relationship with the famous photographer Robert Capa.

Ingrid Bergman Hollywood period: 1938-1949
In 1949, Bergman met Italian director Roberto Rossellini in order to make the film Stromboli (1950), after having been a fan of two of his previous films that she had seen while in the United States. During the making of this movie, she fell in love with him and became pregnant with a son, Roberto Ingmar Rossellini (born February 7, 1950).
The pregnancy caused a huge scandal in the United States. It even led to her being denounced on the floor of the U.S. Senate by Edwin C. Johnson, a senator from Colorado, who referred to her as "a horrible example of womanhood and a powerful influence for evil." In addition, there was a floor vote, which resulted in her being made persona non grata. The scandal forced Ingrid Bergman to exile herself to Italy, leaving her husband and daughter in the United States. Her husband, Dr. Petter Lindström, eventually sued for desertion and waged a custody battle for their daughter.
Ingrid Bergman married Roberto Rossellini on May 24, 1950. On June 18, 1952, she gave birth to twin daughters, Isabella Rossellini, who is a famous actress and model, and Isotta Ingrid Rossellini. Over the next few years, she appeared in several Italian films for Rossellini, including Giovanna d'Arco al rogo (Jeanne d'Arc au bûcher, Joan of Arc at the Stake, 1954), a 1935 dramatic oratorio by Arthur Honegger about Joan of Arc. Their marriage ended in divorce on November 7, 1957.
After separating from Rossellini, she starred in Jean Renoir's Elena and Her Men (Elena et les Hommes, 1956), a romantic comedy where she played a Polish princess caught in political intrigue. Although the film wasn't a success, it has since come to be regarded as one of her best performances.
During her time in Italy, anger over her private life had continued unabated in the United States, with Ed Sullivan at one point infamously polling his TV show audience as to whether she should be forgiven.

Later years: 1957-1982
Ingrid Bergman died in 1982 on her 67th birthday in London, England, following a long battle with breast cancer. Her body was cremated in Sweden. Most of her ashes were scattered in the sea with the remainder being interred in the Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm next to her parents. A single violin played the song "As Time Goes By", the theme from Casablanca, recalling her most famous role, that of Ilsa Lund.

In 1980, Bergman's autobiography was published under the title Ingrid Bergman: My Story. It was written with the help of Alan Burgess, who had written the book The Small Woman, on which the film The Inn of the Sixth Happiness was based. In the book, she discusses her childhood, her early career, her life during her time in Hollywood, the Rossellini scandal and subsequent events. The book was written after her children warned her that she would only be known through rumors and interviews if she did not tell her own story. It was through this autobiography that her affair with Robert Capa became known.

For her contributions to the motion picture industry, Ingrid Bergman has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6759 Hollywood Blvd. She continues to be a cultural icon - not only for her role in Casablanca, but for her career as a whole and for her innocent, natural beauty. In addition, she is considered by many to be one of the foremost actresses of the 20th century.


There is a hybrid tea rose named after her.
Although they worked together, Bergman is not related to fellow Swedish director Ingmar Bergman. The fact that Ingmar Bergman married Ingrid von Rosen who subsequently took the name Ingrid Bergman sometimes further contributes to confusion about their relation. Trivia


Chronology of performances


Television credits

Theater credits

Audio recording credits

Radio credits

Ingmar Bergman
Alfred Hitchcock
Gary Cooper
Charles Boyer
Cary Grant
Victor Fleming
Humphrey Bogart
Yul Brynner See also


Bergman, Ingrid and Burgess, Alan (1980). Ingrid Bergman: My Story. New York: Delacorte Press. ISBN 0-440032-99-7. 
Chandler, Charlotte (2007). Ingrid: Ingrid Bergman, A Personal Biography. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-9421-1. 
Leamer, Laurence (1986). As Time Goes By: The Life of Ingrid Bergman. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-060154-85-3.  Biographical profiles

Ingrid Bergman website by her family
Ingrid Bergman site run by CMG
Ingrid Bergman Collection at Wesleyan University Official sites

1943 New York Times Interview
Larry King transcript with Ingrid Bergman's daughters on the 60th anniversary of Casablanca
Excerpt from Isabella Rossellini's Some of Me that describes Ingrid Bergman's passion for cleaning Rich media — video

Radio rich media may be found in the radio credits table.
Ingrid Bergman's Spoken Word Version of The Pied Piper of Hamelin
Audio Recording of Ingrid Bergman in the NY Production of More Stately Mansions (1967) (RealPlayer)

Thursday, April 24, 2008

Jonathan Wilkes
Jonathan Wilkes (born August 1, 1978 in Baddeley Green, Stoke-on-Trent) is an English television presenter, actor and musician. Wilkes is arguably as famous as a celebrity footballer as he is for his performance skills, in addition to being best-known as the best friend of singer Robbie Williams.

Performing arts
Wilkes' television career was launched after he won the Cameron Mackintosh Young Entertainer of the Year award in 1996. This led to television work on the BBC Choice (now BBC Three) programme Hype. He soon signed a three-year contract with ITV, fronting You've Been Framed for one series and Love on a Saturday Night. Also a singer, he signed to Innocent Records in 2001 and released "Just Another Day", which charted in many European countries. Recently, he has turned to stage acting and has appeared in recent theatre productions of Grease and The Rocky Horror Show, as well as appearing in Mother Goose - a record-breaking pantomime at The Regent Theatre, in his home town of Stoke-on-Trent. Following record-breaking sales for Mother Goose, Jonathan returned to The Regent Theatre the following year (2006-2007) to appear in Aladdin. Sales for this pantomime surpassed even the previous year and it became the biggest selling show ever at the Stoke-on-Trent theatre.
He joined Robbie Williams on his 2006 Close Encounters Tour, singing two songs (Me and My Shadow and Strong), as well as playing a game of football with Robbie on stage.

Wednesday, April 23, 2008

This article is about playthings. For other uses of the term, see Toy (disambiguation).
A toy is an object used in play. Toys are usually associated with children and pets, but it is not unusual for adult humans and some non-domesticated animals to play with toys. Many items are manufactured to serve as toys, but items produced for other purposes can also be used as toys. A child may pick up a household item and 'fly' it around pretending that it is an airplane, or an animal might play with a pinecone by batting at it, chasing it, and throwing it up in the air. Some toys are intended primarily as collector's items and are not to be played with.
The origin of toys is prehistoric; dolls representing infants, animals, and soldiers, as well as representations of tools used by adults are readily found at archaeological sites. The origin of the word "toy" is unknown, but it is believed that it was first used in the 14th century.
Toys and play in general are an important part of the process of learning about the world and growing up. The young use toys and play to discover their identity, help their bodies grow strong, learn cause and effect, explore relationships, and practice skills they will need as adults. Adults use toys and play to form and strengthen social bonds, teach the young, remember and reinforce lessons from their own youth, exercise their minds and bodies, practice skills they may not use every day, and decorate their living spaces. Toys are more than simple amusement, and they and the way they are used profoundly influence most aspects of life.

Toy History
Toys, like play itself, serve multiple purposes in both humans and animals. They provide entertainment while fulfilling an educational role. Toys enhance cognitive behavior and stimulate creativity. They aid in the development of physical and mental skills which are necessary in later life.
One of the simplest toys, a set of simple wooden blocks is also one of the best toys for developing minds. Andrew Witkin, director of marketing for Mega Brands told Investor's Business Daily that, "They help develop hand-eye coordination, math and science skills and also let kids be creative."
Toys for infants often make use of distinctive sounds, bright colors, and unique textures. Through play with toys infants begin to recognize shapes and colors. Repetition reinforces memory. Play-Doh, Silly Putty and other hands-on materials allow the child to make toys of their own.
Educational toys for school age children of often contain a puzzle, problem-solving technique, or mathematical proposition. Often toys designed for older audiences, such as teenagers or adults demonstrate advanced concepts. Newton's cradle, a desk toy designed by Simon Prebble, demonstrates the conservation of momentum and energy.
Not all toys are appropriate for all ages of children. Some toys which are marketed for a specific age range can even harm the development of children in that range.

Toys in child development
Certain toys, such as barbies and toy soldiers, are often perceived to be more acceptable for one gender then the other. It has been noted by researchers that, "Children as young as 18 months display sex-stereotyped toy choices".

Toys and gender
With toys comprising such a large and important part of human existence, it makes sense that the toy industry would have a substantial economic impact. Sales of toys often icrease around holidays where gift-giving is a tradition. Some of these holidays include Christmas, Easter, Saint Nicholas Day and Three Kings Day.
In 2005, toy sales in the United States totaled about $22.9 billion. Issues and events such as power outages, supply of raw materials, supply of labor, and raising wages that impact areas where factories are located often have an enormous impact on the toy industry in importing countries.

Many successful films, television programs, books and sport teams have official merchandise, which often includes related toys. Some notable examples are Star Wars (a science fiction film series) and Manchester United, an English football club.
Promotional toys can fall into any of the other toy categories; for example they can be dolls or action figures based on the characters of movies or professional athletes, or they can be balls, yo-yos, and lunch boxes with logos on them. Sometimes they are given away for free as a form of advertising. Many food manufacturers will run promotions where a toy will be included with the main product as a sort of bonus. Some people go to great lengths to collect these sorts of promotional toys.

Promotional toys

Types of toys
The Greek philosopher Plato wrote that the future architect should play at building houses as a child. A construction set is a collection of separate pieces that can be joined together to create models. Popular models to make include cars, spaceships, and houses. The things that are built are sometimes used as toys once completed, but generally speaking, the object is to build things of one's own design, and old models often are broken up and the pieces reused in new models.
The oldest and, perhaps most common construction toy is a set of simple wooden blocks, which are often painted in bright colors and given to babies and toddlers. Construction sets such as Lego bricks and Lincoln Logs are designed for slightly older children and have been quite popular in the last century. Construction sets appeal to children (and adults) who like to work with their hands, puzzle solvers, and imaginative sorts.
Some other examples include Bayko, Konstruk-Tubes, K'NEX, Erector Sets, Tinkertoys, and Meccano.

Construction toys

Main article: Doll Dolls, animals, and miniatures
Children have played with miniature versions of vehicles since ancient times, with toy two-wheeled carts being depicted on ancient Greek vases. Modern equivalents include toy cars such as those produced by Matchbox or Hot Wheels, miniature aircraft, toy boats, and trains. Examples of the latter range from wooden sets for younger children such as BRIO complicated realistic train models like those produced by Lionel and Hornby.
The oldest known mechanical puzzle comes from Greece and appeared in the 3rd century BC. The game consists of a square divided into 14 parts, and the aim was to create different shapes from these pieces. In Iran "puzzle-locks" were made as early as the 17th century AD. In 1742 Japan there is a mention of a game called "Sei Shona-gon Chie No-Ita" in a book. Around the year 1800 the Tangram puzzle from China became popular, and 20 years later it had spread through Europe and America. The company Richter from Rudolstadt began producing large amounts of Tangram-like puzzles of different shapes, the so-called "Anker-puzzles".
Puzzles were greatly fashionable towards the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. The first patents for puzzles were recorded at this time. In 1893 professor Hoffman wrote a book called "Puzzles Old and New". It contained, amongst other things, more than 40 descriptions of puzzles with secret opening mechanisms. This book grew into a reference work for puzzle games and modern copies exist for those interested.
With the invention of materials easy to shape such as plastic, the range of puzzle possibilities grew. Rubik's Cube, arguably the most famous puzzle worldwide, would not be possible without modern polymers.

History of mechanical puzzles
A great many toys are part of active play. These include traditional toys such as hoops, tops, jump ropes and balls, as well as more modern toys like Frisbees, foot bags (also known as Hacky Sacks), astrojax, myachi, and the yo-yo.
Playing with these sorts of toys allows children to exercise, building strong bones and muscles and aiding in physical fitness. Throwing and catching balls and frisbees can improve hand-eye coordination. Jumping rope and playing with foot bags can improve balance.

Toys that involve physical activity

Main article: CollectableToy Collectable toys
Many new toys and new types of toys are created by accidental innovation. After trying to create a replacement for synthetic rubber, Earl Warrick inadvertently invented "nutty putty" during World War II. Later, Peter Hodgson recognized the potential as a childhood plaything and packaged it as Silly Putty. Similarly, Play-Doh was created as a wallpaper cleaner. In 1943 Richard James was experimenting with torsion springs as part of his military research when he saw one come loose and fall to the floor. He was intrigued by the way it flopped around on the floor. He spent two years fine-tuning the design to find the best gauge of steel and coil. After a name change, the Slinky was sold as a toy for both genders in stores throughout the United States.

Invention of toys

Main article: Toy safety Disposal of toys

Toy companies
Game manufacturers
Board games
National Farm Toy Museum
List of toys
National Toy Hall of Fame
Toy museums

Tuesday, April 22, 2008

The EITC is the largest poverty reduction program in the United States. Almost 21 million American families received more than $36 billion in refunds through the EITC in 2004. These EITC dollars had a significant impact on the lives and communities of the nation's lowest paid working people, lifting more than 5 million of these families above the federal poverty line..

Earned Income Tax Credit Impact
It is difficult to measure the cost of the EITC to the Federal Government. At the most basic level, federal revenues are decreased by the lower, and often negative, tax burden on the working poor for which the EITC is responsible. In this basic sense, the cost of the EITC to the Federal Government was more than $36 billion in 2004.
At the same time, however, this cost may be at least partially offset by several factors: 1) any new taxes (such as payroll taxes paid by employers) generated by new workers drawn by the EITC into the labor force, 2) any reductions in entitlement spending that result from individuals being lifted out of poverty by the EITC (the poverty line is sometimes a watermark for eligibility for state and federal benefits), and 3) taxes generated on additional spending done by families receiving earned income tax credit. 4) Not to mention a potential reduction in crime and other more indirect factors.

Millions of American families who are eligible for the EITC do not receive it, leaving billions of additional tax credit dollars unclaimed. Research by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and Internal Revenue Service indicates that between 15% and 25% of households who are entitled to the EITC do not claim their credit, or between 3.5 million and 7 million households.
The average EITC amount received per family in 2002 was $1,766. Using this figure and a 15% unclaimed rate would mean that low-wage workers and their families lost out on more than $6.5 billion, or more than $12 billion if the unclaimed rate is 25%.
Many nonprofit organizations around the United States, sometimes in partnership with government and with some public financing, have begun programs designed to increase EITC utilization by raising awareness of the credit and assisting with the filing of the relevant tax forms.
In addition, the EITC is a major driver for the walk-in, storefront tax industry, which includes such well-known companies as H&R Block, Jackson Hewitt, and Liberty Tax. These companies frequently offer loan products such as Refund Anticipation Loans ("RALs"). Such loans have been criticized for being over-promoted and for such practices as "cross-collection." [1] [2] (The loans are sometimes not as easy to be approved for as the advertising implies. Customers denied the next-day loans are then required to accept the two-week loan products, in which they still end up paying the bulk of the fees. "Cross-collection" occurs when the loan-issuing bank, such as Santa Barbara Bank & Trust or HSBC in recent years, engages in debt collection for other companies, notably credit card companies. This practice is often not adequately disclosed.)

EITC and United States Military Servicemembers

Taxation in the United States
Speenhamland system
Guaranteed minimum income
Negative income tax

Monday, April 21, 2008

Gateway Clipper Fleet
The Gateway Clipper Fleet is a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania-based fleet of riverboats. The fleet cruises the three rivers of Pittsburgh- the Monongahela, the Allegheny, and the Ohio. The fleet is named after the city of Pittsburgh, which in earlier times was known as the "Gateway to the West" [1]. The original riverboat was the Gateway Clipper, which set sail in 1958. By the mid-1960s, the fleet was composed of three craft, the Gateway Clipper, the Party Liner, and the Good Ship Lollipop. Today there are five watercraft in the fleet: the 1,000-passenger Majestic; the 600-passenger Party Liner; the 400-passenger Keystone Belle; the 300-passenger Liberty Belle; and the 150-passenger Good Ship Lollipop (formerly known as the City of Champions until 1982). The Party Liner is a barge that is pushed by a towboat named the Gateway Liner [2].
The Gateway Clipper Fleet offers many types of cruises, from day trips for school groups to formal dinner cruises. Shuttle service to PNC Park and Heinz Field is available on days of Pittsburgh Pirates, Pittsburgh Steelers, and Pitt Panthers home games. The fleet is believed to be the largest inland riverboat fleet in the United States. The fleet formerly was moored at the Monongahela Wharf, but currently it is moored at Station Square.

Sunday, April 20, 2008

Notable buildings
The headquarters of Newry and Mourne District Council are in Newry. The area has a majority nationalist population, leading to a council dominated by Sinn Féin and the Social Democratic and Labour Party, but there are some Ulster Unionist and Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) councillors and one councillor from the Green Party.

The English version of the name of the city comes from the original Irish Iúr Chinn Trá (in older spelling, Iubhar Chinn Trábha), which translates as "the yew at the head of the strand", which relates to an apocryphal story that Saint Patrick planted a yew tree there in the 5th century. In modern Irish the full name of the town is rarely used; instead it is abbreviated to An tIúr.
The town was established in 1144 with the building of a monastery, although there is strong evidence of continual human habitation in the area for several millennia. The monastery only lasted until 1162, when it was burned to the gound, and later replaced by a cistercian monastery. This monastery itself was later converted to a collegiate church in 1543, before being surrendered to the crown in 1548.
Sir Nicholas Bagenal, Marshal of the Army in Ireland, took over the site around 1550, later building a castle there. The remains of the original Cistercian Monastery were still standing when Bagenal acquired the land and it may well have been the Abbot's House that Bagenal proclaimed as his Castle. The site was said to consist of a 'church, steeple, and cemetery, chapter- house, dormitory and hall, two orchards and one garden, containing one acre, within the precincts of the college'. The remains of Bagenal's Castle can be found today on Castle Street, near to the LIDL store, on what was once the site of McCann's Bakery.
A rental roll dated 1575, provides a unique insight into life in the town at the time. It listed the names of the tenants in 'The High Street', 'Tenements within the Fort' and The Irish Street without the Fort'. These three distinct areas also appear in a map of the same time, along with a drawing of the castle.
During the Williamite War, the forces of King James II set fire to the town in 1689, while retreating from William. It is said that only six houses and the castle survived the inferno.
The town was rebuilt shortly afterwards, and its fortunes changed dramatically. Within decades it had the busiest port in Ulster and in 1742, had the first summit level canal in the British Isles. This led to a further period of economic prosperity, evidence of which can be seen in the many fine buildings and public places that can still be seen today.

Newry saw a number of violent incidents during the conflict known as the Troubles. For more information see The Troubles in Newry, which includes a list of all the fatal incidents that happened in Newry during the Troubles.
See also: The Troubles in Killeen, for information on incidents at the border and customs post at Killeen on the border with the Republic of Ireland and close to Newry. The British Army moved in during the 1950s and have been there ever since. However, in 2003, the hilltop watch towers started being taken down and in 2005 the main base in Bessbrook started to be dismantled.

The Troubles

John Mitchel, a 19th century Irish patriot who inspired the Young Ireland Movement, is buried in the Old Meeting House cemetery in the town.
Danny McAlinden won the bronze medal for boxing (Heavyweight) at the 1966 Commonwealth Games in Kingston, Jamaica. Later he became British and Commonwealth Heavyweight champion. He was born in Newry in 1947.
Matthew Russell, SJ. Irish Jesuit, poet and editor. Russell was born in Newry in 1834. He entered the Jesuit Order and was ordained to the priesthood at age 33. Father Russell established the 'Irish Monthly' in 1873 and served as editor for nearly forty years. He also wrote many volumes of verse, and corresponded with the English Jesuit poet Gerard Manley Hopkins.
Seán Hillen, artist, was born and grew up in Newry, and made a large body of photomontage artworks related to the 'troubles', many of which are based on his own photographs taken in and around Newry. They include a series satirically titled "LondoNewry, a Mythical Town.."
Charles Russell, Baron Russell of Killowen, (1832–1900), Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, was born in Newry on 10 November 1832.
Susan McCann, world-famous folk singer is from Newry
BML Hillen Keene, a published author of the book Land in Mist, born in Newry on August 20, 1986.
Sir William Hill Irvine GCMG (6 July 1858 - 20 August 1943), the 21st Premier of Victoria was born in Newry.
Thomas Duff, Architect, (1792 - 1848) was born in Newry. Duff is renowned for having designed the Cathedral of St. Patrick and St. Colman in the town. People
Newry lies in the most south-eastern part of both Ulster and Northern Ireland. Approximately half of the city lies in County Down and the other half in County Armagh.
The city sits in a valley, nestled between the Mourne Mountains to the east, and the Ring of Gullion to the south-west, both of which are designated Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The Clanrye River runs through the centre of town, parallel to the canal, forming part of the border between County Down and County Armagh. The city also lies at the extreme northernmost end of Carlingford Lough, where the canal enters the sea.

Newry Geography

Newry is home to Newry City F.C., who play in the Irish Premier League at their Showgrounds stadium.
Down Gaelic football club play their home games at Páirc Esler in the city.
Newry Bosco GFC
Newry Shamrocks GAC
Newry Mitchel's GFC
Thomas Davis GFC, Corinshego
Ballyholland GFC
St. Monnina GFC, Killeavy Sport

The Newry Canal opened in 1742, and was the first major commercial canal in the British Isles. It ran for 18 miles to Lough Neagh. In 1777 Newry was ranked the fourth largest port in Ireland. Some surviving 18th and 19th century warehouses still line the canal, and now many houses, shops and restaurants.
MacNeill's Egyptian Arch is a railway bridge located near Newry. It was selected for the design of the British One Pound coin to represent Northern Ireland for 2006.
Newry is served by an Ulsterbus bus station, located in the city centre, that offers local, regional and cross-border services.
A Northern Ireland Railways station, just off the Camlough road, offers cross border services on the Dublin-Belfast line. Planning permission for the construction of a new station, to the east of the current station, was granted in May 2006.
Newry is on the main M1/A1 route from Dublin to Belfast. The road is of dual carriageway/motorway standard on the Southern side, and single carriageway/dual carraigeway/motorway on the Northern side. The remainder of the A1 on the Northern side is expected to be upgraded to dual carriageway standard in 2012. Transport
Although officially a city, Newry is classified as a Large Town by the NI Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) (ie with population between 18,000 and 75,000 people). On Census day (29 April 2001) there were 27,433 people living in Newry. Of these:

26.2% were aged under 16 years and 16.0% were aged 60 and over
48.5% of the population were male and 51.6% were female;
89.6% were from a Catholic background and 9.4% were from a Protestant background
5.5% of people aged 16–74 were unemployed. 2001 Census

Abbey Christian Brothers Grammar School
Ballyholland Primary School
Bunscoil an Iúir
Cloughoge Primary School
Killean Primary School
Newry High School
Our Lady's Grammar School
Sacred Heart Grammar School
St Clare's Convent Primary School
St Colman's Abbey Primary School
St Colman's College
St. John's Primary School
St Joseph's Boys' High School
St Joseph's Convent Primary School
St Mary's High School
St Patrick's Primary School
St Ronan's Primary School
Windsor Hill Primary School
Newry and Kilkeel Institute Churches

Ashton Heights
Barcroft Park
Carlingford Park
Carnagh Park
Courtneay Hill
Dublin Road
Glen Hill
High Street
Liska Road
Monk's Hill
Old Warrenpoint Road
Shandon Park
The Meadow