Wednesday, October 31, 2007

Deadpan is a form of comedic delivery in which humour is presented without exhibiting a change in emotion or facial expression. Deadpan is a type of dry humour.


Notable deadpan comedians

Dave Allen, a pessimistic Irish stand-up.
Michael Ian Black, David Wain, and Michael Showalter are the trio in the stand up act known as Stella.
Todd Barry, American stand-up comedian.
Garry Shandling, American stand-up and actor of the Larry Sanders Show.
Jimmy Carr, English stand-up comedian.
Stephen Colbert, American comedian, see the Comedy Central program, the Colbert Report
Jim Gaffigan, American comedian.
Jack Dee, British stand-up comedian.
Zach Galifianakis, American stand-up comedian.
Elliot Goblet, Australian comedian Jack Levi's standup persona
Mitch Hedberg, American stand-up comedian.
Jeremy Hotz, Canadian stand-up comedian.
Dave Hughes, Australian stand-up comedian.
Jonathan Katz, American comedian, actor and voice actor
Demetri Martin, American comedian, actor, and writer.
Sam Wiewel, American stand-up comedian and actor.
Paul Merton, British comedian and actor, of Have I Got News For You.
Paul Mooney, American comedian and writer
Dave Mordal, American comedian, contestant on Last Comic Standing.
Bob Newhart, American stand-up comedian, TV and film actor, and voice actor
Sarah Silverman, American stand-up comedienne.
Jackie Vernon caricatured the typically boring slide-projector presentation of vacation photos.
Steven Wright, American stand-up comedian.
Pierre Légaré, Quebecois stand-up comedian. Stand-up comedians

Buster Keaton, known as "Great Stone Face", became famous for never cracking a smile in any of his films. Strictly speaking, his was not a deadpan approach, since his face was actually very expressive. He subtly portrayed bemusement, anger, fear, and other emotions, but never smiled in a single one of his classic silents. In Go West, a cowboy forces him to smile, which he does by using his fingers to pull up the sides of his mouth. The result is a ghastly parody of a smile. Keaton also mugged, cried, laughed, and otherwise carried on in several of his earliest silent two-reelers with Fatty Arbuckle. His first smile in sound movie occurred in San Diego, I Love You (1944).
Stan Laurel, of the double act Laurel and Hardy.
Bill Murray. Most of his work entails him delivering overtly humorous lines with a genuine look of disinterest or indifference on his face, particularly in later works such as Lost in Translation, Broken Flowers and The Lost City.
Leslie Nielsen progressed from being a dramatic actor in films such as The Poseidon Adventure to a comedic actor due in large part to his seriousness in delivering nonsensical lines in movies such as Airplane! ("Surely you can't be serious!" "I am serious. And don't call me Shirley.") and The Naked Gun series.
Peter Sellers, most famously for his role as the United States President (as well as Dr. Strangelove, and Captain Mandrake) in Stanley Kubrick's Dr. Strangelove and his portrayal of bumbling French police inspector Jacques Clouseau.
Ben Stein, who was originally a university professor, found a new career as a comedy actor by exploiting the stereotype of the dull academic, often acting as a straight man.
Christopher Walken is best known for his deadpan effect and offkey pauses, which is most notable in films such as Pulp Fiction and True Romance.
Chevy Chase, known for his roles as Ty Webb in Caddyshack and Clark Griswold in National Lampoon's Vacation Film

Stephen Colbert in Comedy Central's The Colbert Report.
Jack Benny and Johnny Carson were famous for their "takes", blank stares toward the camera in response (or nonresponse) to something funny that had just happened.
Peter Cook, pioneering British comedian of stage, screen, and script.
Kenny Mayne, SportsCenter anchor.
The Office, NBC comedy which features Steve Carell, thrives on deadpan humor
Rick Mercer, in This Hour has 22 Minutes and Talking to Americans (by making outlandish claims about Canada).
Bob Newhart is known for his deadpan delivery and his slight stammer, as featured on The Bob Newhart Show and Newhart, and in classic standup routines.
Christopher Morris The alter ego of Chris Morris portrayed on Brass Eye, a satirical news investigation show in which the most hysterical headlines and storys are told completely seriously
Pat Paulsen spoke in a blank monotone with heavy eyelids, usually opening with, "Good evening, I'm really excited to be here."
Anne Robinson, British Weakest Link host known for acerbic comedic remarks.
Mo Rocca
Michael Ian Black
Jemaine Clement and Bret McKenzie of HBO's "Flight of the Conchords (series)" heavily incorporate straightfaced expressions in response to jokes into their comedic and musical routines on the show. Deadpan Other

Unintentional humor
Deadpan violence

Tuesday, October 30, 2007


Lothal in Gujarat, India circa 2400 BC to 1900 BC
Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd
John Brown & Company 1851 to 1972
Gdańsk Shipyard the birthplace of Solidarity Movement - (still a working yard)
Swan Hunter - (still a working yard)
Harland and Wolff - (still a working yard)
Cammell Laird - (still a working repair yard)
Blohm und Voss, where the Bismarck was constructed (still a major yard)
Woolwich Dockyard, near the Woolwich Arsenal
Royal Naval Dockyards in the UK, Gibraltar, Bombay, Bermuda, Hong Kong and elsewhere worldwide
Bethlehem Steel Corporation had 15 shipyards during World War II

  • Staten Island Shipyard 1895
    Charlestown Navy Yard, later Boston Navy Yard, Boston, Massachusetts 1800 to 1974
    Ulstein Verft, Norway, established in 1917 (still a working yard under the Ulstein Group)
    Navy Island, Ontario, Canada - French in 1700s, then British 1763 to War of 1812
    Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Mare Island, California 1854 to 1996
    New York Naval Shipyard (NYNSY), also known as the Brooklyn Navy Yard, the New York Navy Yard, and United States Navy Yard, New York 1801 to 1966
    Philadelphia Naval Shipyard 1799 to 1965
    San Francisco Naval Shipyard, later Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, then Treasure Island Naval Station Hunters Point Annex, 1941 to 1994
    Potrero Point San Francisco California 1880s - still a working yard
    Long Beach Naval Shipyard 1943 to 1997
    Portsmouth Naval Shipyard Located on Maine,New Hampshire border Operatinal:1800 to present making it the oldest continuously-operating shipyard of the US Navy.
    Chantiers de l'Atlantique - established in 1861 (still a working repair yard)
    3._Maj - One of the largest shipyard in Mediterranean, established in 1892 in Rijeka (still a working yard) Shipyard Prominent dockyards and shipyards

    List of shipbuilders and shipyards

Monday, October 29, 2007

Discourse on Method
The Discourse on the Method is a philosophical and mathematical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637. Its full name is Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Searching for Truth in the Sciences (French title: Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la verité dans les sciences). The Discourse on Method is best known as the source of the famous quotation "Je pense, donc je suis" ("I think, therefore I am"), which occurs in Part IV of the work. (The similar statement in Latin, Cogito ergo sum, is found in §7 of Principles of Philosophy.) In addition, in one of its appendices, La Géométrie, is contained Descartes' first introduction of the Cartesian coordinate system.
The Discourse on the Method is one of the most influential works in the history of modern science. It is a method which gives a solid platform from which all modern natural sciences could evolve. In this work, Descartes tackles the problem of skepticism which had been revived from the ancients such as Sextus Empiricus by authors such as Michel de Montaigne. Descartes modified it to account for a truth that he found to be incontrovertible. Descartes started his line of reasoning by doubting everything, so as to assess the world from a fresh perspective, clear of any preconceived notions.
The book was originally published in Leiden in French, together with his works "Dioptrique, Météores e Géométrie". Later, it was translated into Latin and published in 1656 in Amsterdam.
Together with Meditations on First Philosophy (Meditationes de Prima Philosophia), Principles of Philosophy (Principia philosophiae) and Rules for the Direction of the Mind (Regulae ad directionem ingenii), it forms the base of the Epistemology known as Cartesianism.

"Good sense is mankind's most equitably divided endowment. . .the differences of opinion are not due to difference in intelligence, but merely to the fact that we use different approaches and consider different things. For it is not enough to have a good mind: one must use it well."
In the "building metaphor" laid forth by Descartes, opinions and our own thoughts are the ground upon which our later perceptions are built. Descartes remarks on the sedentary nature of ideas and opinions, saying "I firmly believed that in this way I should much better succeed in the conduct of my life, than if I built only upon old foundations, and leaned upon principles which, in my youth, I had taken upon trust." In other words, the core principle is that one must not seek to build on old foundations of knowledge, but should look for other fertile land to build knowledge upon.

How to think correctly

The Method of Science
The following quote from Discourse on Method presents the four precepts that characterize the Method itself:
1. "The first was never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such; that is to say, carefully to avoid precipitancy and prejudice, and to comprise nothing more in my judgment than what was presented to my mind so clearly and distinctly as to exclude all ground of doubt.
2. The second, to divide each of the difficulties under examination into as many parts as possible, and as might be necessary for its adequate solution.
3. The third, to conduct my thoughts in such order that, by commencing with objects the simplest and easiest to know, I might ascend by little and little, and, as it were, step by step, to the knowledge of the more complex; assigning in thought a certain order even to those objects which in their own nature do not stand in a relation of antecedence and sequence.
4. And the last, in every case to make enumerations so complete, and reviews so general, that I might be assured that nothing was omitted."
By clear and distinct he suggests the evidence of the senses.
The enumerations have in time developed into many forms. He suggested drawing boxes on a paper, and connecting them. This idea has led to a multitude of graphic thinking aids that we use today.

The four precepts
The following three maxims were adopted by Descartes so that he could effectively function in the "real world" while experimenting with his method of radical doubt. They formed a rudimentary belief system from which to act before he developed a new system based on the truths he discovered using his method.
Descartes uses the analogy of tearing down the house to its foundation in order to build a secure edifice (He even extends the analogy to move next door into a house of morality, while his own house is being rebuilt). The foundation he reveals appears to have three parts.

Obey the laws and customs of my country and religion
Be as firm and resolute in my actions as I was able
Endeavor always to conquer myself rather than fortune, and change my desires rather than the order of the world, and in general, accustom myself to the persuasion that, except our own thoughts, there is nothing absolutely in our power; so that when we have done our best in things external to us, all wherein we fail of success is to be held, as regards us, absolutely impossible. Proof of God and the Soul
Here he describes how he in other writings discusses the idea of laws of nature, of the sun and stars, the idea of the moon being the cause of ebb and flood, on gravitation, going to examine light and fire, and goes on to medicine, the motion of the blood in the heart and arteries. He describes that these motions seem to be totally independent of what we think, and concludes that our bodies are separate from our soul.
He does not seem to distinguish between mind, spirit and soul, which are identified as our faculty for rational thinking.Hence the term "I am thinking , therefore I am." All three of these words (particularly "mind" and "soul") can be identified by the single French term âme.

One of the practical methods was to order the objects in different ways on paper to make them easy to see clearly. This became the basis of the Cartesian coordinate system, the Histogram, modern mathematical heuristics, and Analytic geometry. These ideas, among other methods of science, influenced Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz in their development of calculus.
The most important influence, however, was the first precept, which states, in Descartes words,"[To]never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such". This new idea of skepticism influenced many to start finding out things for themselves rather than relying solely on authority. The idea as such may have been the starting point for the development of modern science.
This skepticism not only influenced the "hard" sciences, but is considered the start of modern philosophy. Later philosophers adopted Descartes's doubt with great fervor. Most prominently, David Hume doubted the concept of causality and was unable to "clearly know" it to be true.

Sunday, October 28, 2007

Andre Nolan Dawson (born July 10, 1954, Miami, Florida) is a former Major League Baseball outfielder. In 1975, he was drafted by the Montreal Expos and made his major-league debut on September 11, 1976. In 1977, Dawson hit .282, with 19 homers and 65 RBI, and was named NL Rookie of the Year.
Dawson, whose nickname was "The Hawk," played 1443 games with the Expos, 4th highest in franchise history. As an Expo, Dawson set single-season club records for home runs (32, now 7th), RBI (113, now 4th), Extra Base Hits (78, now 7th), and Sacrifice Flies (18, still 1st). He still holds the Expos' career record for Sacrifice Flies (71), and is the only player to hit 200 home runs and steal 200 bases with Montreal.

Montreal Expos (1976-1986)
Chicago Cubs (1987-1992)
Boston Red Sox (1993-1994)
Florida Marlins (1995-1996)
All-Star in 1981, 1982, 1983, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991
MLB Rookie of the Year Award (NL): 1977
MLB Most Valuable Player Award (NL): 1987
Gold Glove (NL-OF): 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988
Silver Slugger Award (NL-OF): 1980, 1981, 1983, 1987
Led NL in Hits (189) and Sacrifice Flies (18) in 1983
Led NL in Total Bases in 1983 (341) and 1987 (353)
Led NL in Home Runs (49) and RBI (137) in 1987
Led NL in Extra-Base Hits in 1982 (67) and 1983 (78)
Led NL in Intentional Walks (21) in 1990
Ranks 32nd on MLB Career Games List (2,627)
Ranks 26th on MLB Career At Bats List (9,927)
Ranks 35th on MLB Career Plate Appearances List (10,769)
Ranks 85th on MLB Career Runs List (1,373)
Ranks 45th on MLB Career Hits List (2,774)
Ranks 24th on MLB Career Total Bases List (4,787)
Ranks 43rd on MLB Career Doubles List (503)
Ranks 35th on MLB Career Home Runs List (438)
Ranks 29th on MLB Career RBI List (1,591)
Ranks 97th on MLB Career Singles List (1,735)
Ranks 64th on MLB Career Runs Created List (1,536)
Ranks 22nd on MLB Career Extra-Base Hits List (1,039)
Ranks 90th on MLB Career Times on Base List (3,474)
Ranks 9th on MLB Career Sacrifice Flies List (118)
Ranks 47th on MLB Career Intentional Walks List (143) Montreal Years
He played for the Expos until after the 1986 season, when he took a pay cut to sign with the Chicago Cubs. Dawson's knee injuries were aggravated by playing on artificial turf in Montreal, and he hoped playing home games on grass at Wrigley Field would prolong his career. Dawson had campaigned for the Cubs to sign him during the offseason, but general manager Dallas Green resisted, insisting that the Cubs would start Brian Dayett in right field (Dawson had moved from center field to right field in his final two seasons as an Expo, due to the condition of his knees), and that one player could not make a 71-91 team a 91-71 team. When the Cubs opened camp in Mesa, Arizona that spring, Dawson and his agent Dick Moss arrived in an attempt to secure a contract with the Cubs. Dawson and Moss' stunt was derided as a "dog and pony show" by Green, who still wouldn't make an offer to Dawson. Two weeks into spring training, Dawson turned the tables on Green and the Cubs, presenting Green with a blank contract. Green filled in the contract with lean figures: a $500,000 base salary with $250,000 in incentives if Dawson made the All-Star team, started the All-Star Game, or won the National League MVP award.
He did all three, enjoying one of his finest seasons in 1987 in terms of raw statistics. He became the Cubs' starting right-fielder, and hit 49 home runs and was named MLB Most Valuable Player NL MVP. With Chicago, Dawson had finally won the MVP award, after the two runner-up years, 1981 and 1983, in Montreal. Sadly, Dawson wasn't able to turn around the Cubs' fortunes: although the Cubs contended for the first half of the season and were even in first place in early May, they finished the 1987 season at 76-85, last in the National League East.
Dawson played five more seasons with the Cubs, and was one of the franchise's most popular players during that time. Unfortunately, his worst individual season came in 1989, when the Cubs won the National League East title. Then, during the National League Championship Series, Dawson slumped terribly, hitting .105 as the San Francisco Giants beat the Cubs 4 games to just 1.
Overall, Dawson's .507 career slugging percentage with the Cubs is 4th highest in Cubs history.

Chicago Years
Dawson also played for the Boston Red Sox, and the Florida Marlins before retiring with 2774 hits, 438 home runs, 314 Stolen Bases, and 1591 RBI. He is 29th on the all-time Home Run list, and 28th on the all-time RBI list. He is one of only six players in major league history to record over 300 home runs and 300 stolen bases in his career (300-300 club). The other players to accomplish this are Barry Bonds, Willie Mays, Bobby Bonds, Reggie Sanders and Steve Finley. Dawson is also one of only 3 members of the 400 HR-300 SB club, joining Barry Bonds and Willie Mays.
Andre Dawson retired after 21 years in the major leagues following the 1996 season.

Andre Dawson Hall of Fame Candidacy

Top 500 home run hitters of all time
300-300 club
List of major league players with 2,000 hits
List of Major League Baseball players with 400 doubles
List of Major League Baseball players with 1000 runs
List of Major League Baseball players with 1000 RBI
Hitting for the cycle
List of Major League Baseball RBI champions
List of Major League Baseball home run champions
Montreal Expos all-time roster

Saturday, October 27, 2007

Zanj Revolt
The Zanj Revolt (Arabic ,ثورة الزنج ) took place in Southern Iraq near the city of Basra between 869 CE and 879 CE. . They were led by ˤAlī ibn Muħammad, who claimed descent from ˤAlī, the fourth Caliph, in a campaign against the central government based in Samarra.
Many scholars have argued that "the Zanj" were slaves from East Africa since the term Zanj describes the East African coast. There were large numbers of people imported from East Africa via Somali and Ethiopian ports from interior as far as Southern Sudan. The slaves were mainly used to work on the massive irrigation projects of the area. Bedouins, Arab mercenaries, and others from the region joined ˤAlī's fight against the central government. The origin of the word "Zanj" comes from Arabic, and is related to the names in East Africa of "Zanzibar" which is also known to have 9th century links to the Middle East.

Reasons for the revolt
For roughly 14 years, they succeeded in achieving remarkable military victories and even building their own capital--Mokhtara, the Elect City, which was within 70 miles of Baghdad, along the Shatt Al-Arab. Moktara had huge resources that allowed the building of no less than six impregnable towns in which there were arsenals for the manufacture of weapons and battleships. .

End of Revolt
Much of the current knowledge of the Zanj Rebellion comes from the Persian Sunnī historian Tabarī's work "History of the Prophets and Kings". It has been the subject of research by such famous Orientalists as Theodor Nöldeke (Sketches from Eastern History) and Louis Massignon (The Passion of al-Hallaj); Alexandre Popović has authored a more recent monograph on the subject.

Zanj Revolt See also

African Presence In Early Asia, by Runoko Rashidi & Van Sertima By RUNOKO RASHIDI
African Holocaust: Dark Voyages

Friday, October 26, 2007

The Galápagos Islands (Official name: Archipiélago de Colón; other Spanish names: Islas de Colónumio or Islas Galápagos, from galápago, "saddle"—after the shells of saddlebacked Galápagos tortoises) are an archipelago of volcanic islands distributed around the equator, 965 kilometres (about 600 miles) west of continental Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean Coordinates: 0°40′S, 90°33′W.
The Galápagos archipelago, with a population of around 30,000, is a province of Ecuador, a country in northwestern South America, and the islands are all part of Ecuador's national park system. The main language on the islands is Spanish.
They are famed for their vast number of endemic species and the studies by Charles Darwin during the voyage of the Beagle that contributed to the inception of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection.

The group consists of 13 main islands, 6 smaller islands, and 107 rocks and islets. The islands are located at the Galápagos hotspot, a place where the earth's crust is being melted from below by a mantle plume, creating volcanoes. The oldest island is thought to have formed between 5 and 10 million years ago. The youngest islands, Isabela and Fernandina, are still being formed, with the most recent volcanic eruption in 2007.
The main islands of the archipelago (with their English names) shown alphabetically. :

Baltra (South Seymour)

Main article: Bartolomé Island Bartolomé

Main article: Darwin Island Darwin (Culpepper)

Main article: Española Island Española (Hood)

Main article: Fernandina Island Fernandina (Narborough)

Main article: Floreana Island Floreana (Charles or Santa María)

Main article: Genovesa Island Genovesa Island (Tower)

Main article: Isabela Island (Ecuador) Isabela (Albemarle)

Main article: Marchena Island Marchena (Bindloe)

Main article: North Seymour Island North Seymour

Main article: Pinta Island Pinta (Abingdon)

Main article: Pinzón Island Pinzón (Duncan)

Main article: Rábida Island Rábida (Jervis)

Main article: San Cristóbal Island San Cristóbal (Chatham)

Main article: Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos) Santa Cruz (Indefatigable)

Main article: Santa Fe Island Santa Fe (Barrington)

Main article: Santiago Island (Galápagos) Santiago (San Salvador, James)

Main article: South Plaza Island South Plaza

Main article: Wolf Island Wolf (Wenman)

Main article: Daphne MajorGalapagos Islands Minor islands
European discovery of the Galápagos Islands occurred when Dominican Fray Tomás de Berlanga, the fourth Bishop of Panama, sailed to Peru to settle a dispute between Francisco Pizarro and his lieutenants. De Berlanga's vessel drifted off course when the winds diminished, and his party reached the islands on March 10, 1535. According to a 1956 study by Thor Heyerdahl and Arne Skjølsvold, remains of potsherds and other artifacts from several sites on the islands suggest visitation by South American peoples prior to the arrival of the Spanish.
The islands first appeared on maps in about 1570 in those drawn by Abraham Ortelius and Mercator. The islands were called "Insulae de los Galopegos" (Islands of the Tortoises).
The first English captain to visit the Galápagos Islands was Richard Hawkins, in 1593. Until the early 19th century, the archipelago was often used as a hideout by mostly English pirates who pilfered Spanish galleons carrying gold and silver from South America to Spain.
Alexander Selkirk, whose adventures in Juan Fernández Islands inspired Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe, visited the Galápagos in 1708 after he was picked up from Juan Fernández by the privateer Woodes Rogers. Rogers was refitting his ships in the islands after sacking Guayaquil.
The first scientific mission to the Galápagos arrived in 1790 under the leadership of Alessandro Malaspina, a Sicilian captain whose expedition was sponsored by the King of Spain. However, the records of the expedition were lost.
In 1793, James Colnett made a description of the flora and fauna of Galápagos and suggested that the islands could be used as base for the whalers operating in the Pacific Ocean. He also drew the first accurate navigation charts of the islands. Whalers killed and captured thousands of the Galápagos tortoises to extract their fat. The tortoises could also be kept on board ship as a means of providing of fresh protein as these animals could survive for several months on board without any food or water. The hunting of the tortoises was responsible for greatly diminishing, and in some cases eliminating, certain species. Along with whalers came the fur-seal hunters who brought the population of this animal close to extinction.
Ecuador annexed the Galápagos Islands on February 12, 1832, naming it Archipelago of Ecuador. This was a new name that added to several names that had been, and are still, used to refer to the archipelago. The first governor of Galápagos, General José de Villamil, brought a group of convicts to populate the island of Floreana and in October 1832 some artisans and farmers joined.
The voyage of the Beagle brought the survey ship HMS Beagle under captain Robert FitzRoy to the Galápagos on September 15, 1835 to survey approaches to harbors. The captain and others on board including his companion the young naturalist Charles Darwin made a scientific study of geology and biology on four of the thirteen islands before they left on October 20 to continue on their round-the-world expedition. Darwin noticed that mockingbirds differed between islands, and the governor of the prison colony on Charles Island told him that tortoises differed from island to island. Towards the end of the voyage Darwin speculated that these facts might "undermine the stability of Species". When specimens of birds were analysed on his return to England it was found that many apparently different kinds of birds were species of finches which were also unique to islands. These facts were crucial in Darwin's development of his theory of natural selection explaining evolution, which was presented in The Origin of Species.
José Valdizán and Manuel Julián Cobos tried a new colonization, beginning the exploitation of a type of lichen found in the islands (Roccella portentosa) used as a coloring agent. After the assassination of Valdizán by some of his workers, Cobos brought from the continent a group of more than a hundred workers to San Cristóbal island and tried his luck at planting sugar cane. He ruled in his plantation with an iron hand which lead to his assassination in 1904. Since 1897 Antonio Gil began another plantation in Isabela island.
Over the course of a whole year, from September 1904, an expedition of the Academy of Sciences of California, led by Rollo Beck, stayed in the Galápagos collecting scientific material on geology, entomology, ornithology, botany, zoology and herpetology. Another expedition from that Academy was done in 1932 (Templeton Crocker Expedition) to collect insects, fish, shells, fossils, birds and plants.
During WWII Ecuador authorized the United States to establish a naval base in Baltra island and radar stations in other strategic locations.
In 1946 a penal colony was established in Isabela Island, but was suspended in 1959.


Main article: Galápagos Province Political geography
It is one of the few places in the world without an indigenous population. The largest ethnic group is comprised of Ecuatorian Mestizos, the mixed descendants of Spanish colonists and indigenous Native Americans, arrived mainly in the last century from the continental part of Ecuador.
In 1959, approximately 1,000 to 2,000 people called the islands their home. In 1972 a census was done in the archipelago and a population of 3,488 was recorded. By the 1980s, this number had risen to more than 15,000 people, and 2006 estimates place the population around 30,000 people.
Five of the islands are inhabited: Baltra, Floreana, Isabela, San Cristobal and Santa Cruz.

Though the first protective legislation for the Galápagos was enacted in 1934 and supplemented in 1936, it was not until the late 1950s that positive action was taken to control what was happening to the native flora and fauna. In 1955, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature organized a fact-finding mission to the Galápagos. Two years later, in 1957, UNESCO in cooperation with the government of Ecuador sent another expedition to study the conservation situation and choose a site for a research station.
In 1959, the centenary year of Charles Darwin's publication of The Origin of Species, the Ecuadorian government declared 97.5% of the archipelago's land area a national park, excepting areas already colonised. The Charles Darwin Foundation was founded the same year, with its international headquarters in Brussels. Its primary objectives are to ensure the conservation of unique Galápagos ecosystems and promote the scientific studies necessary to fulfill its conservation functions. Conservation work began with the establishment of the Charles Darwin Research Station on Santa Cruz Island in 1964. During the early years, conservation programs, such as eradication of introduced species and protection of native species, were carried out by station personnel. Currently, most resident scientists pursue conservation goals; most visiting scientists' work is oriented towards pure research.
In 1986 the surrounding 70,000 square kilometres (43,496 sq mi.) of ocean was declared a marine reserve, second only in size to Australia's Great Barrier Reef. In 1990 the archipelago became a whale sanctuary. In 1978 UNESCO recognised the islands as a World Heritage Site, and in 1985 a Biosphere Reserve. This was later extended in December 2001 to include the marine reserve.
Noteworthy species include:

Galápagos land iguanas, Conolophus spp.
Marine Iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, the only iguana feeding in the sea
Galápagos tortoise (Galápagos Giant tortoise), Geochelone elephantopus, known as Galápago in Spanish, it gave the name to the islands
Galápagos Green Turtle, thought to be a subspecies of the Pacific Green Turtle, Chelonia mydas agassisi
trepang sea cucumbers, the cause of environmental battles with fishermen over quotas of this expensive Asian delicacy.
Flightless Cormorant, Phalacrocorax harrisi
Great Frigatebird and Magnificent Frigatebird
Blue-footed Booby, Sula nebouxii, popular among visitors for their large blue feet which they show off in courtship
Galápagos Penguin, Spheniscus mendiculus, the only living tropical penguin
Waved Albatross, Phoebastria irrorata, the only living tropical albatross
Galápagos Hawk, Buteo galapagoensis, the islands' main scavenger and "environmental police"
4 endemic species of mockingbirds, the first species Darwin noticed to vary from island to island
13 endemic species of buntings, popularly called Darwin's finches. Among them is the Sharp-beaked Ground-finch Geospiza difficilis septentrionalis which is sometimes called the "Vampire Finch" for its blood-sucking habits, and the tool-using Woodpecker Finch, Camarhynchus pallidus
Galápagos Sea lions, Zalophus californianus, closely related to the California Sea Lion, but smaller Conservation
Introduced plants and animals, such as feral goats, cats, and cattle, brought accidentally or willingly to the islands by humans, represent the main threat to Galápagos. Quick to reproduce, these alien species decimate the habitats of native species. The native animals, lacking natural predators on the islands, are defenseless to introduced species and fall prey.
Some of the most harmful introduced plants are the Guayaba or Guava Psidium guajava, avocado Persea americana, cascarilla Cinchona pubescens, balsa Ochroma pyramidale, blackberry Rubus glaucus, various citrus (orange, grapefruit, lemon), floripondio Datura arborea, higuerilla Ricinus communis and the elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum. These plants have invaded large areas and eliminated endemic species in the humid zones of San Cristobal, Floreana, Isabela and Santa Cruz. Also, these harmful plants are just a few of introduced species on the Galapagos Islands. There are over 700 introduced plant species today. There are only 500 native and endemic species. This difference is creating a major problem for the islands and the natural species that inhabit them.
Many species were introduced to the Galápagos by pirates. Thor Heyerdahl quotes documents that mention that the Viceroy of Peru, knowing that British pirates ate the goats that they themselves had released in the islands, ordered dogs to be freed there to eliminate the goats. Also, when colonization of Floreana by José de Villamil failed, he ordered that the goats, donkeys, cows, and other animals from the farms in Floreana be transferred to other islands for the purpose of later colonization.
Non-native goats, pigs, dogs, rats, cats, mice, sheep, horses, donkeys, cows, poultry, ants, cockroaches, and some parasites inhabit the islands today. Dogs and cats attack the tame birds and destroy nests of birds, land tortoises, and marine turtles. They sometimes kill small Galápagos tortoises and iguanas. Pigs are even more harmful, covering larger areas and destroying the nests of tortoises, turtles and iguanas as well as eating the animal's native food. Pigs also knock down vegetation in their search for roots and insects. This problem abounds in Cerro Azul volcano and Isabela, and in Santiago pigs may be the cause of the disappearance of the land iguanas that were so abundant when Darwin visited. The black rat Rattus rattus attacks small Galápagos tortoises when they leave the nest, so that in Pinzón they stopped the reproduction for a period of more than 50 years; only adults were found on that island. Also, where the black rat is found, the endemic rat has disappeared. Cows and donkeys eat all the available vegetation and compete with native species for the scarce water. In 1959, fishermen introduced one male and two female goats to Pinta island; by 1973 the National Park service estimated the population of goats to be over 30,000 individuals. Goats were also introduced to Marchena in 1967 and to Rabida in 1971. However a recent goat eradication program has cleared most of the goat population from Isabela.
The fast growing poultry industry on the inhabited islands has been cause for concern from local conservationists, who fear that domestic birds could introduce disease into the endemic and wild bird populations.
The Galápagos marine sanctuary is under threat from a host of illegal fishing activities, in addition to other problems of development. The most pressing threat to the Marine Reserve comes from local, mainland and foreign fishing targeting marine life illegally within the Reserve, such as sharks (hammerheads and other species) for their fins, and the harvest of sea cucumbers out of season. Development threatens both land and sea species. The growth of both the tourism industry and local populations fuelled by high birth rates and illegal immigration threaten the wildlife of the Archipelago. The recent grounding of the oil tanker Jessica and the subsequent oil spill brought this threat to world attention.
Currently, the rapidly growing problems, including tourism and a human population explosion, are further destroying habitats.
In 2007, UNESCO put the Galápagos Islands on their World Heritage in Danger List.

Environmental threats
School of Hammerhead Sharks, Wolf Island.
Goatfish and a Burrito Grunt.
Diver, Hogfish and Parrotfish, Darwin Island.
Long-nose Hawkfish.
Coral Hawkfish.
Large-Banded Blenny.
Diver and Southern Stingray.
Galapagos Penguins.
Galapagos Penguins.
Plaza Island and cactus.
Marine Iguanas. These iguanas eat algae growing on rocks in the ocean.
Marine Iguanas.
Land Iguana. These iguanas eat cactus.
Sea Lion mother and pup, Plaza Island.
Sea Lion on the beach.
Juvenile Sea Lions, Plaza Island.
Juvenile Sea Lion, Plaza Island.
Male Frigate bird.
Galapagos Tortoise.
Galapagos Tortoise closeup.
Playful Sea lions

In fiction

Galápagos Province
Albatross Foundation USA

Thursday, October 25, 2007

Services Handbook
The Kemps Film and TV Production Services Handbook. is an annual, three volume directory that provides details of suppliers of products and services to the international film, TV and Commercial production industries.
Kemps Volumes
The three Kemps volumes are:
Kemps contains information on: Production Companies; Stages and Film Studios; Equipment Rental; Broadcasting Facilities; Location Services; Special Effects and Props; Post Production; Crew Hire and Support Services; Crew and Technicians; and Equipment Manufacturers.
Kemps is published by the Specialist Directories Division of Reed Business Information Search.
Kemps also publishes Kemps Classified, an on-line classified service, and the Kemps directory on the web, The Kemps website contains details of 44,250 technicians, companies and crew from 126 countries.
The Kemps Film and TV Production Services Handbook is owned by Reed Business Information and is based in East Grinstead in West Sussex.
Kemps was first published in 1956 and marked its 50th anniversary in 2006.
Kemps Film and TV Production Services Handbook
United Kingdom and Ireland - covering the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland and Éire
International - covering Europe, Africa, Asia and Australasia.
Americas - covering the USA, Canada, Central and South America.

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

United States Supreme Court
Associate Justices John Paul Stevens Antonin Scalia Anthony Kennedy David Souter Clarence Thomas Ruth Bader Ginsburg Stephen Breyer Samuel Alito Retired Associate Justice Sandra Day O'ConnorAssociate Justice of the United States Supreme Court List of Chief Justices (By time in office)Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court All nominations Unsuccessful nominations Court demographics
Other countries · Law Portal  This box: view  talk  edit 
This article is part of the series: Politics and government of the United States
Vice President Cabinet
Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts
Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States are the members of the Supreme Court of the United States other than the Chief Justice of the United States. The number of Associate Justices is determined by the United States Congress and is currently eight, as set by the Judiciary Act of 1869. Associate Justices are nominated for service by the President of the United States. Their nominations are then referred to the United States Senate for confirmation. If confirmed then, like other federal judges, they serve for life and can only be removed by death, resignation or impeachment.
Each of the Justices of the Supreme Court has a single vote in deciding the cases argued before it; the Chief Justice's vote counts no more than that of any other Justice. However, in drafting opinions, the Chief Justice gets additional influence in case disposition through his power to assign who writes the opinion in a case when the Chief is in the majority. Otherwise, the senior justice in the majority assigns the writing of a decision. Furthermore, the Chief Justice leads the discussion of the case among the justices. The Chief Justice has certain administrative responsibilities that the other Justices do not, and is paid slightly more ($212,100 vs. $203,000 as of 2007 [1]).
Associate justices have seniority by order of appointment, although the Chief Justice is always considered the most senior. If two justices are appointed on the same day, the older is designated the senior justice of the two. The senior associate justice is now John Paul Stevens. By tradition, when the Justices are in conference deliberating the outcome of cases before the Court, the justices state their views in reverse order of seniority. If there is a knock at the conference room door, however, the junior justice (who sits closest to the door) must answer it.
The current associate justices are (in order of seniority): John Paul Stevens, Antonin Scalia, Anthony Kennedy, David Souter, Clarence Thomas, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, Stephen Breyer, and Samuel Alito

Retired Associate Justices
Contrary to popular belief, a Justice who steps down from the Court continues to be a member of it. When a Justice retires he or she usually goes into senior status, which means that the Justice keeps his or her title and continues to be a member of the Supreme Court. The Retired Justices may elect to keep a chamber in the Supreme Court building as well as maintaining law clerks. The name of the Retired Associate Justices continues to appear alongside the other active members on the Bound Volumes of Supreme Court decisions. However, Retired Associate Justices take no part in the consideration or decision of any cases before the Court.
Currently the only Retired Associate Justice is Sandra Day O'Connor, who assumed senior status on January 31, 2006.

Tuesday, October 23, 2007

Treaty of Granada
The Treaty of Granada was signed and ratified on November 25, 1491 between the king of Granada Abú `Abd Allah Muhammad Boabdil and Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Castile, León, Aragon and Sicily.
Also known as the Capitulation of Granada the treaty relinquished the sovereignty of the Moorish Kingdom of Granada (founded five centuries earlier) to the Catholic monarchs of Spain. The treaty guaranteed a set of rights to the Moors, including religious tolerance and fair treatment in return for their unconditional surrender and capitulation.
The capitulation of 1492 contained sixty-seven articles among which were the following:

That both great and small should be perfectly secure in their persons, families, and properties.
That they should be allowed to continue in their dwellings and residences, whether in the city, the suburbs, or any other part of the country.
That their laws should be preserved as they were before, and that no-one should judge them except by those same laws.
That their mosques, and the religious endowments appertaining to them, should remain as they were in the times of Islam.
That no Christian should enter the house of a Muslim, or insult him in any way.
That no Christian or Jew holding public offices by the appointment of the late Sultan should be allowed to exercise his functions or rule over them.
That all Muslim captives taken during the siege of Granada, from whatever part of the country they might have come, but especially the nobles and chiefs mentioned in the agreement, should be liberated.
That such Muslim captives as might have escaped from their Christians masters, and taken refuge in Granada, should not be surrendered; but that the Sultan should be bound to pay the price of such captives to their owners.
That all those who might choose to cross over to Africa should be allowed to take their departure within a certain time, and be conveyed thither in the king's ships, and without any pecuniary tax being imposed on them, beyond the mere charge for passage, and
That after the expiration of that time no Muslim should be hindered from departing, provided he paid, in addition to the price of his passage, the tithe of whatever property he might carry along with him.
That no-one should be prosecuted and punished for the crime of another man.
That the Christians who had embraced the Mohammadan religion should not be compelled to relinquish it and adopt their former creed.
That any Muslim wishing to become a Christian should be allowed some days to consider the step he was about to take; after which he is to be questioned by both a Mohammadan and a Christian judge concerning his intended change, and if, after this examination, he still refused to return to Islam, he should be permitted to follow his own inclination.
That no Muslim should be prosecuted for the death of a Christian slain during the siege; and that no restitution of property taken during this war should be enforced.
That no Muslim should be subject to have Christian soldiers billeted upon him, or be transported to provinces of this kingdom against his will.
That no increase should be made to the usual imposts, but that, on the contrary, all the oppressive taxes lately imposed should be immediately suppressed.
That no Christian should be allowed to peep over the wall, or into the house of a Muslim or enter a mosque.
That any Muslim choosing to travel or reside among the Christians should be perfectly secure in his person and property.
That no badge or distinctive mark be put upon them, as was done with the Jews and Mudejares.
That no muezzin should be interrupted in the act of calling the people to prayer, and no Muslim molested either in the performance of his daily devotions or in the observance of his fast, or in any other religious ceremony; but that if a Christian should be found laughing at them he should be punished for it.
That the Muslims should be exempted from all taxation for a certain number of years.
That the Lord of Rome, the Pope, should be requested to give his assent to the above conditions, and sign the treaty himself."

Monday, October 22, 2007

Software testing is the process used to measure the quality of developed computer software. Usually, quality is constrained to such topics as correctness, completeness, security, but can also include more technical requirements as described under the ISO standard ISO 9126, such as capability, reliability, efficiency, portability, maintainability, compatibility, and usability. Testing is a process of technical investigation, performed on behalf of stakeholders, that is intended to reveal quality-related information about the product with respect to the context in which it is intended to operate. This includes, but is not limited to, the process of executing a program or application with the intent of finding errors. Quality is not an absolute; it is value to some person. With that in mind, testing can never completely establish the correctness of arbitrary computer software; testing furnishes a criticism or comparison that compares the state and behaviour of the product against a specification. An important point is that software testing should be distinguished from the separate discipline of Software Quality Assurance (SQA), which encompasses all business process areas, not just testing.
There are many approaches to software testing, but effective testing of complex products is essentially a process of investigation, not merely a matter of creating and following routine procedure. One definition of testing is "the process of questioning a product in order to evaluate it", where the "questions" are operations the tester attempts to execute with the product, and the product answers with its behavior in reaction to the probing of the tester. Although most of the intellectual processes of testing are nearly identical to that of review or inspection, the word testing is also used to connote the dynamic analysis of the product—putting the product through its paces. Sometimes one therefore refers to reviews, walkthroughs or inspections as "static testing", whereas actually running the program with a given set of test cases in a given development stage is often referred to as "dynamic testing", to emphasize the fact that formal review processes form part of the overall testing scope.

The separation of debugging from testing was initially introduced by Glenford J. Myers in 1979.
until 1956 it was the debugging oriented period, where testing was often associated to debugging: there was no clear difference between testing and debugging. From 1957-1978 there was the demonstration oriented period where debugging and testing was distinguished now - in this period it was shown, that software satisfies the requirements. The time between 1979-1982 is announced as the destruction oriented period, where the goal was to find errors. 1983-1987 is classified as the evaluation oriented period: intention here is that during the software lifecycle a product evaluation is provided and measuring quality. From 1988 on it was seen as prevention oriented period where tests were to demonstrate that software satisfies its specification, to detect faults and to prevent faults.
Dr. Gelperin chaired the IEEE 829-1989 (Test Documentation Standard) with Dr. Hetzel writing the book The Complete Guide to Software Testing. Both works were pivotal in to today's testing culture and remain a consistent source of reference. Dr. Gelperin and Jerry E. Durant also went on to develop High Impact Inspection Technology that builds upon traditional Inspections but utilizes a test driven additive.

White box and black box testing are terms used to describe the point of view a test engineer takes when designing test cases. Black box testing assumes an external view of the test object; one inputs data and one sees only outputs from the test object. White box testing provides an internal view of the test object and its processes.
In recent years the term gray box testing has come into common usage. The typical gray box tester is permitted to set up or manipulate the testing environment, such as by seeding a database, and can view the state of the product after his actions, such as performing a SQL query on the database to be certain of the values of columns.
Gray box testing is used almost exclusively by client-server testers or others who use a database as a repository of information, but can also apply to a tester who has to manipulate input or configuration files directly, or perform testing like SQL injection. It can also be used by testers who know the internal workings or algorithm of the software under test and can write tests specifically for the anticipated results. For example, testing a data warehouse implementation involves loading the target database with information, and verifying the correctness of data population and loading of data into the correct tables.

Alpha test White-box, black-box, and gray-box testing
Software testing is used in association with verification and validation (V&V). Verification is the checking of or testing of items, including software, for conformance and consistency with an associated specification. Software testing is just one kind of verification, which also uses techniques such as reviews, inspections, and walkthroughs. Validation is the process of checking what has been specified is what the user actually wanted.

Verification: Are we doing the job right?
Validation: Have we done the right job? Verification and validation
It should be noted that although both Alpha and Beta are referred to as testing it is in fact use immersion. The rigors that are applied are often unsystematic and many of the basic tenets of testing process are not used. The Alpha and Beta period provides insight into environmental and utilization conditions that can impact the software.
After modifying software, either for a change in functionality or to fix defects, a regression test re-runs previously passing tests on the modified software to ensure that the modifications haven't unintentionally caused a regression of previous functionality. Regression testing can be performed at any or all of the above test levels. These regression tests are often automated.

Unit testing tests the minimal software component, or module. Each unit (basic component) of the software is tested to verify that the detailed design for the unit has been correctly implemented.
Integration testing exposes defects in the interfaces and interaction between integrated components (modules). Progressively larger groups of tested software components corresponding to elements of the architectural design are integrated and tested until the software works as a whole.
System testing tests an integrated system to verify that it meets its requirements.
System integration testing verifies that a system is integrated to any external or third party systems defined in the system requirements.
Acceptance testing can be conducted by the end-user, customer, or client to validate whether or not to accept the product. Acceptance testing may be performed after the testing and before the implementation phase. See also Development stage

  • Alpha testing is simulated or actual operational testing by potential users/customers or an independent test team at the developers' site. Alpha testing is often employed for off-the-shelf software as a form of internal acceptance testing, before the software goes to beta testing.
    Beta testing comes after alpha testing. Versions of the software, known as beta versions, are released to a limited audience outside of the company. The software is released to groups of people so that further testing can ensure the product has few faults or bugs. Sometimes, beta versions are made available to the open public to increase the feedback field to a maximal number of future users. Levels of testing
    A test case is a software testing document,which consists of event, action, input, output, expected result, and actual result. Clinically defined (IEEE 829-1998) a test case is an input and an expected result. This can be as pragmatic as 'for condition x your derived result is y', whereas other test cases described in more detail the input scenario and what results might be expected. It can occasionally be a series of steps (but often steps are contained in a separate test procedure that can be exercised against multiple test cases, as a matter of economy) but with one expected result or expected outcome. The optional fields are a test case ID, test step or order of execution number, related requirement(s), depth, test category, author, and check boxes for whether the test is automatable and has been automated. Larger test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps, and descriptions. A test case should also contain a place for the actual result. These steps can be stored in a word processor document, spreadsheet, database, or other common repository. In a database system, you may also be able to see past test results and who generated the results and the system configuration used to generate those results. These past results would usually be stored in a separate table.
    The term test script is the combination of a test case, test procedure, and test data. Initially the term was derived from the product of work created by automated regression test tools. Today, test scripts can be manual, automated, or a combination of both.
    The most common term for a collection of test cases is a test suite. The test suite often also contains more detailed instructions or goals for each collection of test cases. It definitely contains a section where the tester identifies the system configuration used during testing. A group of test cases may also contain prerequisite states or steps, and descriptions of the following tests.
    Collections of test cases are sometimes incorrectly termed a test plan. They might correctly be called a test specification. If sequence is specified, it can be called a test script, scenario, or procedure.

    Test cases, suites, scripts, and scenarios
    Although testing varies between organizations, there is a cycle to testing:
    During the design phase, testers work with developers in determining what aspects of a design are testable and under what parameter those tests work.
    Not all errors or defects reported must be fixed by a software development team. Some may be caused by errors in configuring the test software to match the development or production environment. Some defects can be handled by a workaround in the production environment. Others might be deferred to future releases of the software, or the deficiency might be accepted by the business user. There are yet other defects that may be rejected by the development team (of course, with due reason) if they deem it

    Requirements Analysis: Testing should begin in the requirements phase of the software development life cycle.

    During the design phase, testers work with developers in determining what aspects of a design are testable and under what parameter those tests work.

    Test Planning: Test Strategy, Test Plan(s), Test Bed creation.
    Test Development: Test Procedures, Test Scenarios, Test Cases, Test Scripts to use in testing software.
    Test Execution: Testers execute the software based on the plans and tests and report any errors found to the development team.
    Test Reporting: Once testing is completed, testers generate metrics and make final reports on their test effort and whether or not the software tested is ready for release.
    Retesting the Defects A sample testing cycle

    Main article: Code coverage Code coverage
    There is considerable controversy among testing writers and consultants about what constitutes responsible software testing. Members of the "context-driven" school of testing believe that there are no "best practices" of testing, but rather that testing is a set of skills that allow the tester to select or invent testing practices to suit each unique situation. In addition, prominent members of the community consider much of the writing about software testing to be doctrine, mythology, and folklore. Some might contend that this belief directly contradicts standards such as the IEEE 829 test documentation standard, and organizations such as the Food and Drug Administration who promote them. The context-driven school's retort is that Lessons Learned in Software Testing includes one lesson supporting the use IEEE 829 and another opposing it; that not all software testing occurs in a regulated environment and that practices appropriate for such environments would be ruinously expensive, unnecessary, and inappropriate for other contexts; and that in any case the FDA generally promotes the principle of the least burdensome approach.
    Some of the major controversies include:

    Starting around 1990, a new style of writing about testing began to challenge what had come before. The seminal work in this regard is widely considered to be Testing Computer Software, by Cem Kaner. Instead of assuming that testers have full access to source code and complete specifications, these writers, including Kaner and James Bach, argued that testers must learn to work under conditions of uncertainty and constant change. Meanwhile, an opposing trend toward process "maturity" also gained ground, in the form of the Capability Maturity Model. The agile testing movement (which includes but is not limited to forms of testing practiced on agile development projects) has popularity mainly in commercial circles, whereas the CMM was embraced by government and military software providers.
    However, saying that "maturity models" like CMM gained ground against or opposing Agile testing may not be right. Agile movement is a 'way of working', while CMM is a process improvement idea.
    But another point of view must be considered: the operational culture of an organization. While it may be true that testers must have an ability to work in a world of uncertainty, it is also true that their flexibility must have direction. In many cases test cultures are self-directed and as a result fruitless; unproductive results can ensue. Furthermore, providing positive evidence of defects may either indicate that you have found the tip of a much larger problem, or that you have exhausted all possibilities. A framework is a test of Testing. It provides a boundary that can measure (validate) the capacity of our work. Both sides have, and will continue to argue the virtues of their work. The proof however is in each and every assessment of delivery quality. It does little good to test systematically if you are too narrowly focused. On the other hand, finding a bunch of errors is not an indicator that Agile methods was the driving force; you may simply have stumbled upon an obviously poor piece of work.

    Agile vs. traditional
    Exploratory testing means simultaneous test design and test execution with an emphasis on learning. Scripted testing means that learning and test design happen prior to test execution, and quite often the learning has to be done again during test execution. Exploratory testing is very common, but in most writing and training about testing it is barely mentioned and generally misunderstood. Some writers consider it a primary and essential practice. Structured exploratory testing is a compromise when the testers are familiar with the software. A vague test plan, known as a test charter, is written up, describing what functionalities need to be tested but not how, allowing the individual testers to choose the method and steps of testing.
    There are two main disadvantages associated with a primarily exploratory testing approach. The first is that there is no opportunity to prevent defects, which can happen when the designing of tests in advance serves as a form of structured static testing that often reveals problems in system requirements and design. The second is that, even with test charters, demonstrating test coverage and achieving repeatability of tests using a purely exploratory testing approach is difficult. For this reason, a blended approach of scripted and exploratory testing is often used to reap the benefits while mitigating each approach's disadvantages.

    Exploratory vs. scripted
    Some writers believe that test automation is so expensive relative to its value that it should be used sparingly. Others, such as advocates of agile development, recommend automating 100% of all tests. A challenge with automation is that automated testing requires automated test oracles (an oracle is a mechanism or principle by which a problem in the software can be recognized). Such tools have value in load testing software (by signing on to an application with hundreds or thousands of instances simultaneously), or in checking for intermittent errors in software. The success of automated software testing depends on complete and comprehensive test planning. Software development strategies such as test-driven development are highly compatible with the idea of devoting a large part of an organization's testing resources to automated testing. Many large software organizations perform automated testing. Some have developed their own automated testing environments specifically for internal development, and not for resale.

    Manual vs. automated
    Software testers should not only be limited to testing software implementation, but also to testing software design. With this assumption, the role and involvement of testers will change dramatically. The test cycle will change too. To test software design, testers will review requirement and design specifications together with designer and programmer. This will help to identify bugs earlier.

    Software design vs. software implementation
    Several certification programs exist to support the professional aspirations of software testers and quality assurance specialists. No certification currently offered actually requires the applicant to demonstrate the ability to test software. No certification is based on a widely accepted body of knowledge. No certification board decertifies individuals.
    Certifications can be grouped into: exam-based and education-based. Exam-based certifications: For these there is the need to pass an exam, which can also be learned by self-study: e.g. for ISTQB or QAI. Education-based certifications are instructor-led sessions, where each course has to be passed, e.g. IIST (International Institute for Software Testing).


    CSTE offered by the Quality Assurance Institute (QAI)
    CSTP offered by the International Institute for Software Testing
    ISEB offered by the Information Systems Examinations Board
    ISTQB offered by the International Software Testing Qualification Board Testing certifications

    CSQE offered by the American Society for Quality (ASQ)
    CSQA offered by the Quality Assurance Institute (QAI) Quality assurance certifications
    One principle in software testing is summed up by the classical Latin question posed by Juvenal: Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes (Who watches the watchmen?), or is alternatively referred informally, as the "Heisenbug" concept (a common misconception that confuses Heisenberg's uncertainty principle with observer effect). The idea is that any form of observation is also an interaction, that the act of testing can also affect that which is being tested.
    In practical terms the test engineer is testing software (and sometimes hardware or firmware) with other software (and hardware and firmware). The process can fail in ways that are not the result of defects in the target but rather result from defects in (or indeed intended features of) the testing tool.
    There are metrics being developed to measure the effectiveness of testing. One method is by analyzing code coverage (this is highly controversial) - where every one can agree what areas are not at all being covered and try to improve coverage on these areas.
    Bugs can also be placed into code on purpose, and the number of bugs that have not been found can be predicted based on the percentage of intentionally placed bugs that were found. The problem is that it assumes that the intentional bugs are the same type of bug as the unintentional ones.
    Finally, there is the analysis of historical find-rates. By measuring how many bugs are found and comparing them to predicted numbers (based on past experience with similar projects), certain assumptions regarding the effectiveness of testing can be made. While not an absolute measurement of quality, if a project is halfway complete and there have been no defects found, then changes may be needed to the procedures being employed by QA.

    Who watches the watchmen?
    Software testing can be done by software testers. Until the 1950s the term software tester was used generally, but later it was also seen as a separate profession. Regarding the periods and the different goals in software testing (see D. Gelperin and W.C. Hetzel) there have been established different roles: test lead/manager, tester, test designer, test automater/automation developer, and test administrator.
    Participants of testing team:

    Business Analyst
    Information Service Management
    Senior Organization Management
    Quality team Quotes

    Boris Beizer: Software Testing Techniques. Second Edition, International Thomson Computer Press, 1990, ISBN 1-85032-880-3
    Elfriede Dustin: Effective Software Testing. Addison Wesley, 2002, ISBN 0-20179-429-2
    Elfriede Dustin, et al: Automated Software Testing. Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 0-20143-287-0
    Robert V. Binder: Testing Object-Oriented Systems: Objects, Patterns, and Tools. Addison-Wesley Professional, 1999, ISBN 0-201-80938-9
    Rex Black: Managing the Testing Process. Second Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2002, ISBN 0-471-22398-0
    Mark Fewster, Dorothy Graham: Software Test Automation. Addison Wesley, 1999, ISBN 0-201-33140-3
    Cem Kaner, James Bach, Bret Pettichord: Lessons Learned in Software Testing. A Context-Driven Approach. John Wiley & Sons, 2001, ISBN 0-471-08112-4
    G. T. Laycock: The Theory and Practice of Specification Based Software Testing. PhD Thesis, Dept of Computer Science, Sheffield University, UK, 1993, free PS-version
    AppLab's CEO Sashi Reddi sees potential of global software testing Development Market
    Hung Nguyen, Robert Johnson, Michael Hackett: Testing Applications on the Web (2nd Edition): Test Planning for Mobile and Internet-Based Systems ISBN 0-471-20100-6