Wednesday, February 27, 2008
Ancient Greek grammar is morphologically complex and preserves several features of Proto-Indo-European morphology. Nouns, adjectives, pronouns, articles, numerals and especially verbs are all highly inflected. This article is an introduction to this morphological complexity.
The alpha declension contains predominantly feminine nouns. Such nouns have stems ending in short or long alpha. In certain circumstances the alpha changes its length or becomes eta.
In the table below of feminine nouns there are three examples: long alpha stem (ᾱ-stems), short alpha stems (α-stems), and stems which can end in eta (η-stems).
The short alpha stem is not present in masculine nouns, thus only ᾱ-stems and η-stems are declined.
Omicron Declension (second declension)
The labial and velar declension nouns have stems that end in either a labial plosive (β, π, φ) or a velar plosive (γ, κ, χ). When followed by σ/ς, none of these consonants maintain their distinction of voice or aspiration, and join with σ/ς to become ψ or ξ respectively. All nouns are declined the same regardless of gender.
Labial and Velar Declension (third declension)
Attic Greek has a definite article, but no indefinite article. The definite article agrees with its associated noun in number, gender and case. Proper names usually take the definite article. Adjectives are either placed between the article and noun or after the noun, in which case the article is repeated before the adjective. Dependent genitive noun phrases are positioned in exactly the same way, even though this frequently results in splitting the article and noun by a long dependent phrase. For example, τὸ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἔργον 'tò toû anthrṓpou érgon', literally "the (of the man) deed", or "The deed of the man." In earlier Greek, for instance Homeric Greek, there was no definite article as such, the corresponding forms still having their original use as demonstrative pronouns.
The definite article is declined thus:
The numerals from 1 to 10 are:
Numbers one through four are declined.
The Ancient Greek verbal system preserves nearly all the complexities of Proto-Indo-European.
In Ancient Greek, verbs have four moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive and optative), three voices (active, middle and passive), as well as three persons (first, second and third). Verbs are conjugated in four main tenses (present, aorist, perfect, and future), with a full complement of moods for each main tense, although there is no future subjunctive or imperative. In addition, for each main tense there exist, in each voice, an infinitive and participles. Indicative forms of the imperfect, pluperfect and the rare future perfect also exist. The distinction of the "tenses" in moods other than the indicative is predominantly one of aspect rather than time.
A distinction is traditionally made between the so called athematic verbs, with endings affixed directly to the root (also called mi-verbs) and the thematic class of verbs which present a "thematic" vowel /o/ or /e/ before the ending. All athematic roots end in a vowel except for /es-/ "be". The endings are classified into primary (those used in the present, future, perfect and rare future perfect of the indicative, as well as in the subjunctive and secondary (used in the aorist, imperfect, and pluperfect of the indicative, as well as in the optative). Ancient Greek also preserves the PIE middle voice and adds a passive voice, with separate forms only in the future and aorist (elsewhere, the middle forms are used).
Verbs have six principal parts: present (I), future (II), aorist (III), perfect (IV), perfect middle (V) and aorist passive (VI), each listed in its first-person singular form:
One principal part can sometimes be predicted from another, but not with any certainty. For some classes of verbs, however, all principal parts can be predicted given the first one. This mostly includes contracted verbs (present stem ending in /a/, /e/, /o/) and verbs ending in /eu/ and /izd/. There are also certain other regularities; for example, the stem in part IV often occurs in parts V and VI as well.
Part I forms the entire present system, as well as the imperfect.
Part II forms the future active and middle tenses.
Part III forms the aorist active and middle tenses.
Part IV forms the perfect and pluperfect active tenses, and the (exceedingly rare) future perfect active.
Part V forms the perfect and pluperfect middle tenses, and the (rare) future perfect middle.
Part VI forms the aorist and future passive tenses. Principal parts
The thematic present stem is formed in various ways:
With no suffix. (That is, the thematic endings, beginning with a thematic /o/ or /e/ vowel, is added directly to the verb stem.)
With a suffix /j/, which transforms the final consonant in various complex ways (/pj/, /phj/, /bj/ -> /pt/; /tj/, /thj/, /kj/, /khj/ -> /tt/ (Attic), /ss/ (Ionic); /gj/, /dj/ -> /zd/; /lj/ -> /ll/; /mj/ -> /jm/; /nj/ -> /jn/; /rj/ -> /jr/). Because stems in /g/, /k/ and /kh/ tend to become indistinguishable in other tenses (likewise for /d/, /t/, and /th/), the /tt/ and /zd/ presents were easily interchanged, with the tendency for all dental stems to move into the /zd/ class and all velar stems into the /tt/ class.
With a suffix /sk/.
With a suffix and/or infix /n/. Present tense
An additional, extremely important class is that of contracted verbs, where the stem itself ends in a vowel, and the vowel contracts with the initial (thematic) vowel of the endings. There are three varieties, depending on whether the stem ends with /a/, /e/ or /o/, and the details of contraction are extremely complex. The earliest contract verbs arose from loss of intervocalic /s/ or /j/, when the latter (the present stem suffix /j/) was added to noun stems ending in a vowel; but soon, these verbs were formed directly from noun stems (so-called denominative verbs). Many later verbs were derived by analogy from various other kinds of nouns (compare the development of the denominative -āre, -ēre, and -īre classes in Latin, with -āre eventually becoming dominant regardless of the noun declension on which the verb was based).
The future stem is normally formed from the verb stem (minus any present suffix) with /s/ added and a preceding short vowel lengthened. Verb stems in /m/, /n/, /l/ and /r/, however, as well as most stems in izd, usually add /e/ instead (deleting the zd in the case of these verbs), and form contracted futures, conjugated like contracted presents. (Note: Verb stems in /a/, /e/ and /o/, which form contracted presents, do not have contracted futures; rather, they have futures ending in /ēs/, /ēs/, and /ōs/, respectively. One verb, however, kaleō (kalô) "I call", forms a future based on its root /kal/. This will be a contracted future; hence, the present and future of this verb are both contracted and both nearly identical.)
The aorist stem is formed in three basic ways, with three corresponding sets of endings:
The aorist indicative (but no other form) also has an augment added onto the beginning.
Occasionally, two different aorists exist for a single verb, with different meanings: A first (or second) aorist with a transitive meaning, and a root aorist with an intransitive meaning. This was the origin of the aorist passive, which takes active athematic endings.
The aorist passive comes in two varieties, first and second. The first aorist adds thē onto the verb stem, while the second adds ē. Active athematic endings are added onto this.
First or weak aorists add /s/ onto the verb stem (with a preceding short vowel lengthened, as for the future). The first aorist endings mostly begin with a thematic /a/, so alternatively the stem can be said to end with /sa/. (Note that the /s/ is absorbed following an /m/, /n/, /l/ or /r/, with compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel. This is called a krypto-sigmatic aorist, as the s is "hidden".) Following a /p/ or /k/ (pi or kappa) the sigma combines with the preceding character to form /ps/ and /x/ (psi and xi) respectively. Following a /z/ (zeta/zdeta) the sigma replaces the /z/ character entirely as /zs/ or /zds/ (according to many schools of pronunciation) is too difficult to pronounce.
Second or strong aorists are formed by removing any present suffix or infix, and reducing the root vowel (to the zero-grade of Indo-European ablaut) if possible (mostly ei -> i). Some second aorists are formed by suppletion, i.e., the use of a completely different stem from the present form. Second aorists add the same endings as for the imperfect (in the indicative) and the present (all other moods, plus infinitives and participles); hence, the second aorist stem can never be the same as the present stem.
Root or athematic aorists. The stem assumes a form ending in a long vowel, and athematic endings are added directly onto it. Aorist tense
The perfect tense involves reduplication of the beginning of the stem (see below).
The perfect active stem (principal part IV) comes in two varieties:
The endings are the same in both cases.
The perfect middle stem (principal part V) is formed by direct addition of middle endings onto the (reduplicated) verb stem, with a preceding short vowel sometimes lengthened.
Occasionally, two different perfect actives exist for a single verb, with different meanings, analogously to aorists: A first perfect with a transitive meaning, and a second perfect aorist with an intransitive meaning. From prāttō "I do, I fare": peprākha "I have done", peprāga "I have fared". From phainō "I show": pephanka "I have shown", pephēna "I have appeared".
Sometimes the intransitive form of a perfect has a present meaning.
From (ap-)ollūmi "I destroy, I lose": (ap-)olōleka "I have destroyed, I have lost", (ap-)olōla "I am ruined". From peithō "I persuade": pepeika "I have persuaded", pepoitha "I trust".
Sometimes only one perfect exists, with a present, intransitive meaning. From histēmi "I set, I cause to stand": hestēka "I am standing". From rhēgnūmi "I break": errhōga "I am broken". From (apo-)thnēiskō "I die": tethnēka "I am dead". From mimnēiskō "I remind": memnēmai (middle) "I remember". From egeirō "I arouse": egrēgora "I am awake". From ktaomai (middle) "I acquire": kektēmai (middle) "I possess".
First perfect, which usually adds k (sometimes ēk or ek). A preceding dental is lost and a preceding short vowel sometimes lengthened. The k-perfect is not added directly onto labial-final or velar-final stems; instead, the aspirated perfect is used, with a final labial becoming ph and a final velar kh.
Second perfect, which adds no suffix, but may modify the root vowel (into the o-grade of Indo-European ablaut). Perfect tense
Some verbs, called deponent verbs, have a middle form but active meaning. Most such verbs have no active forms at all. There are two types:
Some verbs have active forms in some stems, middle or passive in others, with no middle or passive meaning. These are called semi-deponents and have many variations:
Middle deponents have middle forms in all stems. These will have principal parts I, II, III and V only (sometimes also part VI, with passive meaning).
Passive deponents (less common) have middle forms in most stems, but passive form in the aorist. These will have principal parts I, II, V and VI only. (Most such verbs still have a middle future, not a passive future.)
Most common are active verbs with middle future stems.
Some verbs are active verbs but with a middle perfect stem (dokeō "seem, think"; eirgō "imprison, prevent"; elenkhō "examine, confute"; thaptō "bury"; skedannūmi "scatter"; sphallō "trip up"; titrōskō "wound").
Some verbs are active verbs but with middle future and perfect stems (e.g., daknō "bite").
Some verbs are middle verbs but with an active perfect stem (e.g., gignomai "become").
Some verbs are middle verbs but with active aorist and perfect stems (e.g., haliskomai "be captured").
Other combinations exist as well. Deponents, semi-deponents
A completely regular eu verb: paideuō, paideusō, epaideusa, pepaideuka, pepaideumai, epaideuthēn "educate".
The standard paradigmatic verb: lūō, lūsō, elūsa, leluka, lelumai, eluthēn "free, release; (middle) ransom". (Note variable vowel length. In Homeric Greek, all parts have a short u.)
A regular contracted verb in e: poieō (poiô), poiēsō, epoiēsa, pepoiēka, pepoiēmai, epoiēthēn "make, do".
A regular contracted verb in a: nikaō (nikô), nikēsō, enikēsa, nenikēka, nenikēmai, enikēthēn "win". (Note how /a/ is lengthened to /ē/.)
A regular contracted verb in o: deloō (delô), delōsō, edelōsa, dedelōka, dedelōmai, edelōthēn "show".
A regular verb in izd: nomizdō, nomieō (nomiô), enomisa, nenomika, nenomismai, enomisthēn "consider, think, believe". (Note the normal contracted future in these types of verbs.)
A regular verb in azd: thaumazdō, thaumasō, ethaumasa, tethaumaka, tethaumasmai, ethaumasthēn "marvel at". Verbs in vowel stems
Velar-stem: lēgō, lēksō, elēksa, lelēkha, lelēgmai, elēkhthēn "cease (+ gen.)". (Note regular use of the aspirated perfect.)
Velar-stem: arkhō, arksō, ērksa, ērkha, ērgmai, ērkhthēn "rule". (Note regular use of augment for reduplication in perfect due to initial vowel.)
Labial-stem: graphō, grapsō, egrapsa, gegrapha, gegrammai, egraphēn "write". (Second aorist passive.)
Labial-stem, with present /j/ suffix: blaptō, blapsō, eblapsa, beblapha, beblammai, eblaphthēn/eblabēn "harm". (Both first and second aorist passive with same meaning.)
Dental-stem: peithō, peisō, epeisa, pepeika, pepeismai, epeisthēn "persuade; (middle) obey (+dat.)". (This verb also has a poetic second perfect pepoitha meaning "trust")
Dental-stem: ereidō, ereisō, ēreisa, --, erēreismai, ēreisthēn "(cause to) lean, prop; press hard". (Semi-deponent, with middle perfect; Attic reduplication.)
Sonorant-stem, with present /j/ suffix: aggellō, aggeleō (aggelô), ēggeila, ēggelka, ēggelmai, ēggelthēn "announce". (Regular contracted future, as in all sonorant-stem verbs. Compensatory lengthening in the aorist, caused by the lost /s/, with a -> ē, e -> ei, i -> ī, o -> ou, u -> ū.)
Verb in ainō: sēmainō, sēmaneō (sēmanô), esēmēna, --, sesēmasmai, esēmanthēn "show, point out; signify, indicate". (Semi-deponent, with middle perfect.)
Verb in ainō: kraino, kraneō (kranô), ekrāna, --, kekrammai, ekranthēn "accomplish". (Semi-deponent, with middle perfect, but with slightly different middle perfect from previous verb. Note that ā never changes to ē after r.)
Verb in ūnō: aiskhūnō, aiskhuneō (aiskhunô), ēiskhūna, --, --, ēiskhunthēn "dishonor". (No perfect.)
Present /an/ suffix: aisthanomai, aisthēsomai, ēisthomēn, --, ēisthēmai, -- "perceive". (Deponent. Second aorist. Root aisth with suffix ē in some forms.)
Present /isk/ suffix: haliskomai, halōsomai, heālōn, heālōka, --, -- "be captured". (Semi-deponent, middle with active aorist and perfect. Root aorist. Irregular augment, both syllabic and quantitative – transfer of /h/ to beginning is normal. Suffix ō in some forms.)
Reduplicated present, with /sk/ suffix: gignōskō, gnōsomai, egnōn, egnōka, egnōsmai, egnōsthēn "know". (Semi-deponent with middle future. Root aorist. Irregular reduplication with augment. Suffix /s/ in parts V and VI.) Verbs in consonant stems, no ablaut
Labial-stem: leipō, leipsō, elipon, leloipa, leleimmai, eleiphthēn "leave". (Second aorist. Ablaut leip/lip/loip.)
Labial-stem: trephō, threpsō, ethrepsa, tetropha, tethrammai, etraphēn, etrephthēn "rear, bring up, nourish". (Second aorist passive. t/th alternation due to dissimilation of aspirates (Grassmann's law). Ablaut t(h)reph/t(h)roph/t(h)raph.)
Velar-stem: echō, heksō/skhēsō, eskhon, eskhēka, -eskhēmai, -- "have, hold". (Second aorist. Perfect middle occurs only in compounds. h/nothing alternation at beginning of stem due to dissimilation of aspirates (Grassmann's law). Ablaut (h)ekh/skh. Suffix ē in some forms.)
Sonorant-stem, with present /j/ suffix :speirō, spereō (sperô), espeira, esparka, esparmai, esparēn "sow". (Second aorist passive. Ablaut sper/spar.)
Sonorant-stem, with present /j/ suffix: ballō, baleō (balô), ebalon, beblēka, beblēmai, eblēthēn "throw, hit". (Second aorist. Ablaut bal/blē.)
Present /n/ suffix: daknō, dēksomai, edakon, --, dedēgmai, edēkhthēn "bite". (Semi-deponent with middle future and perfect. Second aorist. Ablaut dak/dēk.)
Present /nj/ suffix: bainō, bēsomai, ebēn, bebēka, --, -- "go". (Root aorist. Ablaut ba/bē.)
Prefixed verb, present /nj/ suffix: apobainō, apobēsomai, apebēn, apobebēka, --, -- "go away, result". (Prefix precedes augment and reduplication. Final vowel of prefix elided before initial vowel.)
Present /an/ suffix, nasal infix: lambanō, lēpsomai, elabon, eilēpha, eilēmmai, elēphthēn "take". (Semi-deponent with middle future. Second aorist. Ablaut lab/lēb. Irregular reduplication.)
Present /an/ suffix, nasal infix: punthanomai, peusomai, eputhomēn, --, pepusmai, -- "ascertain". (Deponent. Second aorist. Ablaut puth/peuth.)
Reduplicated present: gignomai, genēsomai, egenomēn, gegona, gegenēmai, -- "become". (Semi-deponent, middle with active perfect. Second aorist and perfect. Ablaut gen/gon/gn. Suffix ē in some forms.)
Reduplicated present: pīptō, pesoumai, epeson, peptōka, --, -- "fall". (Semi-deponent with middle future. Second aorist. Ablaut pet/pt/ptō. Irregular long vowel in present reduplication. Irregular occurrence of contracted future. Irregular suffix s in future and aorist.)
Present /sk/ suffix: paskhō, peisomai, epathon, pepontha, --, -- "suffer". (Semi-deponent with middle future. Second aorist and perfect. Ablaut penth/ponth/path. Irregular assimilation of aspiration into present /sk/ suffix.)
Present /isk/ suffix: apothnēiskō, apothanoumai, apethanon, tethnēka, --, -- "die". (Semi-deponent with middle future. Second aorist. Ablaut than/thnē. No prefix in perfect; perfect means "be dead". Irregular occurrence of contracted future.) Verbs with ablaut
These verbs have reduplication in the present, ablaut between short and long forms, a separate set of endings, and certain other irregularities that vary from verb to verb.
didōmi, dōsō, edōka, dedōka, dedomai, edothēn "give".
hīēmi, hēsō, hēka, heika, heimai, heithēn "let go, send forth".
histēmi, stēsō, estēsa (trans.) or estēn (intr.), hestēka (intr.), hestamai, estathēn "make stand; (middle or intr.) stand".
Prefixed verb: aphistēmi, apostēsō, apestēsa (trans.) or apestēn (intr.), aphestēka (intr.), aphestamai, apestathēn "cause to revolt; (middle or intr.) revolt". Athematic verbs
These verbs all have complex irregularities, ablaut, second aorist and/or perfect, unexpected reduplication and/or augment, etc.
erkhomai, eîmi, ēlthon, elēlutha, --, -- "go, come".
legō, eraō (erô)/leksō, eipon/eleksa, eirēka, eirēmai/lelegmai, elekhthēn/errhēthēn "say, speak".
horaō, opsomai, eidon, heorāka/heōrāka, heōrāmai/ōmmai, ōphthēn,oida "see".
pherō, oisō, ēnegka, ēnegkon, enēnokha, enēnegmai, ēnekhthēn "carry".
esthiō, edomai, ephagon, edēdoka, edēdesmai, ēdesthēn "eat".
pōleō, apodōsomai, apedomēn, peprāka, peprāmai, eprāthēn "sell". Suppletive verbs
Time and aspect
The rules on mood sequence (Consecutio modorum) determine the mood of verbs in subordinate clauses in a way analogous to but more flexible than the Latin rules on time sequence Consecutio temporum which determine their tense.
Putting aside special cases and exceptions, these rules can be formulated as follows:
In dependent sentences, where the construction allows both the subjunctive and the optative, the subjunctive is used if the leading verb is primary, and the optative if it is secondary. E.g. Πράττουσιν ἃ ἂν βούλωνται, they do whatever they want; but Ἔπραττον ἃ βούλοιντο, they did whatever they wanted.
Similarly, where the construction allows both the indicative and the optative, the indicative follows primary, and the optative follows secondary tenses. E.g. Λέγουσιν ὅτι τοῦτο βούλονται, they say they want this; εἶπον ὅτι τοῦτο βούλοιντο, they said they wanted this.
Posted by yummy255 at 7:58 AM
Tuesday, February 26, 2008
St. Edward's University is a small, private Roman Catholic institution of higher learning located south of Lady Bird Lake in Austin, Texas. The university is known for offering a quality liberal arts education and for its picturesque campus situated on a hill overlooking the city of Austin. The campus's most notable landmark is the recognizable Main Building.
1990s and 2000s
More than 5,200 students attend St. Edward's, with undergraduates coming from 37 states and 38 countries. The average SAT score of 1131 for the 2006 freshman class has risen more than 80 points since 1999. More than 52 percent of incoming freshmen rank in the top 25 percent of their high school class. The acceptance rate for freshmen applicants is 64%.
More than 1,100 students live on campus in five residence halls and two apartment communities. Students at St. Edward's University are also involved in more than 80 campus organizations, including: student government, service organizations, academic honor societies, cultural clubs and intramural sports.
St. Edward's offers five bachelor's degrees in more than 50 areas of study through the schools of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Education, Humanities, Management and Business, and Natural Sciences. New College, called one of the "Top 30" adult education programs in the country by William Maehl in his book Lifelong Learning at Its Best, offers similar bachelor's degrees for adults 24 years of age and older. St. Edward's also offers eight master's degrees.
St. Edward's boasts that it has an impressive Theater Arts program department, which features a U/RTA contract with the Actors' Equity Association, allowing students who successfully complete the requirements of a Membership Candidate Program to become eligible to join Actors' Equity Association. St. Edward's has one of the only undergraduate programs in the country with this affiliation. In 2005, actor Ed Begley Jr. brought his play, César & Ruben to St. Edward's University for its Texas premiere.
NCAA Division II athletic teams include men's and women's baseball/softball, basketball, cross country, golf, soccer and tennis. Women also compete in Division II volleyball. The 2004-2005 season resulted in conference championships for the men's and women's basketball teams, the men's golf team, and the women's soccer, tennis and volleyball teams.
The university's student-athlete graduation rate of 76 percent is 13th in the country out of 278 Division II institutions. The university mascot is the Hilltopper. St. Edward's is a founding member of the Heartland Conference.
The Dallas Cowboys football team has used the campus for pre-season training, from 1990 to 1997.
The following dormitories serve the university Notable alumni
Southeast view of the main building
Historical marker on the main building
Closeup of the statue of the Virgin Mary at the grotto
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Posted by yummy255 at 8:28 AM
Monday, February 25, 2008
The habanera is a musical style or genre from Cuba with a characteristic "Habanera rhythm"; it is one of the oldest mainstays of Cuban music and the first of the dances from Cuba to be exported all over the world.
In the mid-19th century, the habanera developed out of the contradanza which had arrived from France via Haiti with refugees from the Haitian revolution in 1791. The earliest identified "contradanza habanera" is "La Pimienta", an anonymous song published in an 1836 collection. The main innovation from the contradanza was rhythmic, as the habanera incorporated Spanish and African influences into its repertoire.
It is believed that the habanera was brought back to Spain by sailors, where it became very popular for a while before the turn of the twentieth century. Spanish composer Sebastian Yradier was known especially for his habanera "La Paloma", which achieved great fame in Spain and America and was largely responsible for the habanera's success to come. The habanera was danced by all classes of society, and had its moment of glory in English and French "salons" (ballrooms). The habanera was so well established as a "Spanish" dance that Jules Massenet included one in the ballet music to his opera Le Cid (1885), to lend atmospheric color. Of French habaneras meant to give "Spanish" color, the "Habanera" from Bizet's Carmen (1875) is the definitive example to the average listener, though the piece is directly derived from one of Yradier's compositions (the habanera "El Arreglito"). Maurice Ravel wrote a "Vocalise-Étude en forme de Habanera", and Camille Saint-Saens' "Havanaise" for violin and orchestra is still played and recorded today.
Popular knowledge has it that the habanera married the tango flamenco and exiled itself in Argentina, where it eventually became the tango.
Back in Cuba the habanera developed into the danzón with the formation of charangas and the further inclusion of African elements. In the 1930s, habanera performer Arcaño y sus Maravillos incorporated influences from conga and added a montuno (as in son), paving the way for the mixing of Latin musical forms, including guaracha, also played by a charanga orchestra. Guaracha (sometimes simply called charanga) also drew from Haitian musical forms, has been extremely popular and continues to entertain Cuban audiences.
Elements of habanera were also integrated into American jazz by New Orleans musicians such as Jelly Roll Morton who called it the Spanish Tinge, and later by Cuban musicians such as Juan Tizol and Chano Pozo.
In Catalonia the habaneras have become specially popular in the sailor zones. The habanera El meu avi (My grandfather) is known by nearly the entire population.
"Yo cuando era niño - mi padre querido" - José Suarez
Posted by yummy255 at 9:32 AM
Sunday, February 24, 2008
Jacques-François de Menou, baron de Boussay was a French general under Napoleon I of France. Born Jacques Menou in Boussay (Indre-et-Loire) on 3 September 1750, he died in Mestre in the Veneto on 13 August 1810. In 1798 Le Moniteur documented Napoleon's conversion to Islam, claiming his new Muslim name as 'Aly Napoleon Bonaparte'.
On the assassination of Jean Baptiste Kleber on 14 June 1800, Menou, as senior officer, succeeded to the command of the Army of Egypt. After a dismal tenure, he surrendered Alexandria, the last French position in Egypt, on 30 August 1801.
He was appointed to the Tribunate in 1802. Administrator of Piedmont, he was appointed Governor of Tuscany in 1805, and later Governor of Venice.
Recalled to France 23 July 1810, he died at Mestre in the Veneto 13 August 1810.
Satanic Voices - Ancient & Modern by David Musa Pidcock ISBN 1-871012-03-1
History of the Consulate and the Empire of France under Napoleon by Louis Adolphe Thiers, London 1893, v. 2, Book X, passim.
Posted by yummy255 at 7:23 AM
Saturday, February 23, 2008
The Shrine of Husayn ibn Ali (Arabic: مقام الامام الحسين) is a holy site of Shī'a Islam in the city of Karbala, Iraq. It is built above the grave of Husayn ibn Ali, the second grandson of Muhammad, which is close to the spot where he was killed during the Battle of Karbala in 680.
Two main roads lead the visitor to Karbala. One is from the Iraqi capital Baghdad, through Al-Musails, and the other is from Najaf.
At the city's entrance there is a row of houses decorated with wooden columns. The boundary wall of the shrine surrounds wooden gates covered with glass decorations, and through the gates there is a precinct surrounded by small rooms called "Iwans".
Hussein's grave is located in the middle of the precinct, surrounded by square shaped structures called "Rawaq". The grave itself is located in the middle of the Zari with golden windows around it, with ornate illumination.
Martyrdom and popularity
There is a lot of benefit and great spiritual reward in visiting the grave of Hussain ibn Ali. Muhammad said of his grandson Hussain ibn Ali: "Husain is of me and I am of him." Several narrations mention that visiting the grave of Hussain ibn Ali relieves one of worldly afflictions as well as those after death.
Believers, therefore, come from all parts of the world all year round to receive the honor of visiting Hussain ibn Ali, particularly during the first ten days of Muharram (Ashura) and the twentieth of Safar.
One common Iraqi custom during that season is to go walking from Najaf to Karbala, reflecting their strong adhesion to and adoption of the morals and principles for which Hussain ibn Ali struggled and attained martyrdom.
Bounty of visiting Hussain ibn Ali
The historian Ibn Kuluwayh mentioned that those who buried Hussain ibn Ali, made a special and rigid construction with signs above the grave.
Higher and bigger constructions above the grave started during the ruling of Al-Saffah, but Harun al-Rashid later on, put heavy restrictions to prevent people from visiting the grave.
At the time of Al-Mamun, construction around the grave resumed until the year 236 AH when Al-Mutawakkil ordered the destruction and digging of the grave, and then filling the pit with water. His son, who succeeded him, allowed people to visit the grave site, and since then building the precinct to the grave increased and developed step by step.
On the other hand, the historian Ibn Al-Athir, stated that in the year 371 AH, Aadod Al-Dawla Al-Boowayhi became the first to largely lay the foundations for large scale construction, and generously decorated the place. He also built houses and markets around the precinct, and surrounded Karbala with a high boundary wall turning it into a strong castle.
In the year 407 AH, the precinct caught fire due to the dropping of two large candles on the wooden decorations, but Hassan ibn Fadl (the state minister) rebuilt the damaged sections.
History has recorded the names of several rulers who shared the honor of widening, decorating or keeping the precinct in good condition. Amongst them is Fateh Ali al-Qajari, who in 1250 AH ordered the construction of two domes, one over Hussain ibn Ali's grave and the other over his brother Abbas ibn Ali.
The first dome is 27 meters high and completely covered with gold. At the bottom, it is surrounded with 12 windows, each of which is about 1.25 m away from the other, from the inside, and 1.30 m from the outside.
The mausoleum has an area of 59 m / 75 m with ten gates, and about 65 rooms, well decorated from the inside and outside, used as classrooms for studying.
As for the grave itself, in the middle of the precinct, it is called the "Rawda" or garden and it has several doors. The most famous one is called "Al-Qibla" or "Bab al-Dhahab". When it is entered, one can see the tomb of Habib ibn Madhahir al-Asadi, to the right hand side. Habib was a friend and companion of Hussain ibn Ali since their childhood. He was one of those who were honored with martyrdom at the Battle of Karbala.
Karbala contains, besides the grave of Hussain ibn Ali and his brother, the grave of all the 72 martyrs of Karbala. They were buried in a mass grave which was then covered with soil to the ground level. This mass grave is at the foot of Hussain ibn Ali's grave. In particular, besides Imam Husain's grave are the graves of his two sons Ali Akbar ibn Husain and 6-month old Ali Asghar ibn Hussain.
Mausoleum of Hussain ibn Ali
680 October 10: Husayn is said to have been buried on this day.
684: A mosque was built by Mukhtar ibn Abu `Ubayd ath-Thaqafi on the spot and a dome was created over the grave. Two entrance gates were made for the mosque.
749: Another dome was erected over the mosque and additional two gates for entrance were made at the mausoleum during the reign of Abbasid Caliph as-Saffah.
763: During the reign of Caliph al-Mansur the roof, including domes, was destroyed.
774: The demolished roof was rebuilt during the reign of Caliph al-Mahdi.
787: During the reign of Caliph Harun ar-Rashid, the mausoleum was destroyed and the plum tree that stood besides the grave of Husayn was cut down.
808: The mausoleum was reconstructed during the reign of al-Amin.
850: Caliph al-Mutawakkil destroyed the mausoleum and ordered the nearby land, including the grave, to be ploughed.
861: Al-Muntasir reconstructed the shrine with an iron pillar.
886: Once again the mausoleum was destroyed.
893: The shrine was rebuilt by the Alid council and two minarets were constructed on either side of the grave. Two entrance gates for the shrine were also constructed.
977: A sepulcher was constructed within the shrine of teak wood by the Buwayhid emir `Adud ad-Dawlah. Surrounding galleries were also constructed. He also constructed the city of Karbala by making houses and the city boundary. 'Imran ibn Shahin at that time also constructed a mosque adjacent to the shrine.
1016: Fire destroyed the shrine. The vizier Hasan ibn Fadl rebuilt the structure.
1223: The sepulcher was renovated by an-Nasir li-Din Allah.
1365: The dome and walls of the shrine were reconstructed by Sultan `Uways ibn Hasan Jalayiri.
1384: The two minarets were reconstructed of gold by Sultan Ahmad ibn `Uways. The courtyard was also extended.
1514: The Safavid shah of Iran Ismail I constructed a sarcophagus of inlaid work over the real grave.
1622: Abbas Shah Safavi renovated the sarcophagus with brass and bronze and also the dome with Kashi tiles.
1638: Sultan Murad IV whitewashed the dome.
1742: Nadir Shah Afshar decorated the shrine and offered expensive gems to the treasury of the shrine.
1796: Aqa Muhammad Shah Qajar plastered the dome with pure gold.
1801: Wahhabis attacked Karbala, damaged the shrine, and looted the sepulchre.
1817: Fath Ali Shah Qajar reconstructed the screens by plating with silver. He also replated the dome with gold and therefore repaired the damage caused by the Wahhabis.
1866: Nasir ad-Din Shah Qajar broadened the courtyard of the mausoleum.
1939: Dr. Syedna Taher Saifuddin, of the Dawoodi Bohra community presented a set of solid silver screens with gold which were attached to the shrine.
1941: The western minaret was rebuilt by Dr. Syedna Taher Saifuddin.
1948: A road was built around the shrine by the then administrator of Karbala City, Sayyid Abd al-Rasul al-Khalsi. He also broadened the courtyard of the shrine. See also
Posted by yummy255 at 9:07 AM
Friday, February 22, 2008
A race track (or 'racetrack' or 'racing track') is a purpose-built facility for racing. This racing can be of animals (eg. horse racing or greyhound racing), automobiles, motorcycles or athletes. A race track may also feature grandstands or concourses. The term racecourse is also used for horse-racing facilities. Race tracks built for bicycles are known as velodromes.
Horse and dog racing facilities tend to use circular or oval tracks, whereas most automotive and motorcycle racing is performed on meandering courses, which are sometimes called 'road circuits' (this originates in the fact that the earliest road racing circuits were simply closed-off public roads). A notable exception is most forms of automotive racing in the USA (such as NASCAR) that primarily use oval tracks (known as "speedways").
List of auto racing tracks (UK: motor racing tracks)
List of horse racing venues
Posted by yummy255 at 9:12 AM
Thursday, February 21, 2008
This is a list of colleges and universities in California. This list also includes other educational institutions providing higher education, meaning tertiary, quaternary, and, in some cases, post-secondary education.
Defense Language Institute, Monterey Graduation colleges
See California Community Colleges system Two-year institutions
California State University
- California Maritime Academy, (Vallejo)
California Polytechnic State University, (San Luis Obispo)
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, (Pomona)
California State University, Bakersfield, (Bakersfield)
California State University, Channel Islands, (Camarillo)
California State University, Chico, (Chico)
California State University, Dominguez Hills, (Carson)
California State University, East Bay, (Hayward)
California State University, Fresno, (Fresno)
California State University, Fullerton, (Fullerton)
California State University, Long Beach, (Long Beach)
California State University, Los Angeles, (Los Angeles)
California State University, Monterey Bay, (Seaside)
California State University, Northridge, (Northridge)
California State University, Sacramento, (Sacramento)
California State University, San Bernardino, (San Bernardino)
California State University, San Marcos, (San Marcos)
California State University, Stanislaus, (Turlock)
Humboldt State University, (Arcata)
San Diego State University, (San Diego)
San Francisco State University, (San Francisco)
San José State University, (San Jose)
Sonoma State University, (Rohnert Park)
University of California
- University of California, Berkeley (Berkeley)
University of California, Davis (Davis)
University of California, Irvine (Irvine)
University of California, Los Angeles (Los Angeles)
University of California, Merced (Merced)
University of California, Riverside (Riverside)
University of California, San Diego (La Jolla)
University of California, San Francisco (San Francisco)
University of California, Santa Barbara (Santa Barbara-Goleta)
University of California, Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz) Four-year institutions
California State University
- Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing
University of California
- Hastings College of the Law, San Francisco
University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco Graduate institutions
California Culinary Academy, San Francisco
Deep Springs College, Deep Springs
Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising
Marymount College, Rancho Palos Verdes Private liberal arts colleges
Academy of Art University, San Francisco
Alliant International University
- Los Angeles
Art Center College of Design, Pasadena
The Art Institute of California - San Francisco, San Francisco
Azusa Pacific University, Azusa
Bethany University, Scotts Valley
Biola University, La Mirada
California Baptist University, Riverside
California College of the Arts, San Francisco
California Institute of the Arts, Valencia
California Institute of Technology, Pasadena
California Lutheran University, Thousand Oaks
California National University, Northridge
California Pacific University, Escondido
Capital Bible College, Sacramento
Chapman University, Orange
CapStone University, Riverside, California/Riverside
Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles
Cogswell College, Sunnyvale
Concordia University Irvine, Irvine
Culinary Institute of America at Greystone, St. Helena
Dominican University of California, San Rafael
Fresno Pacific University, Fresno
Golden Gate University, San Francisco
Holy Names University, Oakland
Hope International University, Fullerton
Humphreys College, Stockton
John F. Kennedy University, Pleasant Hill
Laguna College of Art and Design, Laguna Beach
La Sierra University, Riverside
Life Pacific College, San Dimas
Lincoln University, Oakland
Loma Linda University, Loma Linda
Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles
Master's College, Newhall
National Hispanic University, San Jose
NewSchool of Architecture and Design, San Diego
Northwestern Polytechnic University, Fremont
Notre Dame de Namur University, Belmont
Otis College of Art and Design, Los Angeles
Pacific Oaks College and Children's School, Pasadena
Pacific Union College, Angwin
Pacific Western University, San Diego
Patten College, Oakland
Pepperdine University, Malibu
Remington College, San Diego
San Francisco Institute of Architecture, Berkeley
Saint Mary's College of California, Moraga
Samuel Merritt College, Oakland
San Diego Christian College, El Cajon
Santa Clara University, Santa Clara
Soka University of America, Aliso Viejo
Southern California Institute of Architecture, Los Angeles
Simpson University, Redding
Stanford University, Stanford
Trinity Life Bible College, Sacramento
Touro University, Vallejo
University of Judaism, Los Angeles
University of La Verne, La Verne
University of Northern California, Petaluma
University of Phoenix
Beale Air Force Base
Edwards Air Force Base
University of Redlands, Redlands
University of the Pacific, Stockton
University of San Diego, San Diego
University of San Francisco, San Francisco
University of Southern California, Los Angeles
University of West Los Angeles
Vanguard University of Southern California, Costa Mesa
William Howard Taft University, Santa Ana
William Jessup University, Rocklin
- Los Angeles
- Hastings College of the Law, San Francisco
- Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Moss Landing
- University of California, Berkeley (Berkeley)
Posted by yummy255 at 8:40 AM
Wednesday, February 20, 2008
History Byzantine Empire Crusades Ecumenical council Baptism of Kiev Great Schism By region Eastern Orthodox history Ukraine Christian history Asia Eastern Christian history Traditions Oriental Orthodoxy Coptic Orthodox Church Armenian Apostolic Church Syriac Christianity Assyrian Church of the East Eastern Orthodox Church Eastern Catholic Churches Liturgy and Worship Sign of the cross Divine Liturgy Iconography Asceticism Omophorion Theology Hesychasm - Icon Apophaticism - Filioque clause Miaphysitism - Monophysitism Nestorianism - Theosis - Theoria Phronema - Philokalia Praxis - Theotokos Hypostasis - Ousia Essence-Energies distinction The ancient Church of Cyprus (Greek: Ἐκκλησία τῆς Κύπρου Ekklēsía tês Kýprou) is one of the fourteen or fifteen independent ('autocephalous') Eastern Orthodox churches, which are in communion and in doctrinal agreement with one another but not all subject to one patriarch. It is one of the oldest autocephalous churches. The bishop of the capital, Salamis (Constantia), was constituted metropolitan by Emperor Zeno, with the title of archbishop.
9 Byzantine churches in the Troodos mountains are listed by UNESCO as World Heritage sites, pictured here.
Kykkos Monastery, guardians of the holy Kykkotissa Icon, an unusual representation of the infant Jesus kicking with joy on his mother's lap.
Icons smuggled from the Bishopric of the Holy Metropolis of Kyrenia and Church of Panaghia Asinou in the northern Turkish-occupied part of the island were repatriated by a collector in the United States of America in 2007.
Icons from Kalopanayiotis village stolen even earlier, before the division of the island, have also been returned to the Church's custody.
Some estimate that since 1974 looters in Northern Cyprus have stripped an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 icons; several dozen major frescoes and mosaics dating from the sixth to the fifteenth century; and thousands of chalices, wooden carvings, crucifixes, and Bibles. Efforts by the Autocephalous Church of Cyprus and the Republic of Cyprus to return some of these objects are described in a 1998 issue of Archeology magazine but the majority remain lost.
Churches in capital Nicosia such as Chrysaliniotissa Our Lady of the Golden Flax and Panayia Chrysospiliotissa Our Lady of the Gold Cave, along with the Byzantine Museum of the Archbishop Makarios III Foundation, listed for interested visitors
Monasteries listed separately.
Photo Gallery of the ruins of the Roman Catholic Augustinian Cloister named Bellepais near Kyrenia
Posted by yummy255 at 8:17 AM
Tuesday, February 19, 2008
2005 Atlantic hurricane season
Hurricane Katrina was the costliest and one of the deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States. It was the sixth-strongest Atlantic hurricane ever recorded and the third-strongest hurricane on record that made landfall in the United States. Katrina formed on August 23 during the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season and caused devastation along much of the north-central Gulf Coast of the United States. The most severe loss of life and property damage occurred in New Orleans, which flooded as the levee system failed catastrophically, in many cases hours after the storm had moved inland.
- New Orleans preparedness
Criticism of gov't response
Effects by region
- Effects on Mississippi
Effects on New Orleans
- Levee failures
Commons: Katrina images
Wikinews: Katrina stories
Wikisource: Katrina sources Storm history
Main article: Preparations for Hurricane Katrina Preparations
Many people living in the area were unaware when Katrina strengthened from a tropical storm to a hurricane in one day and struck southern Florida near the Miami-Dade–Broward county line. The hurricane struck between the cities of Aventura, in Miami-Dade County, and Hallandale, in Broward County, on August 25, 2005. However, National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecasts had correctly predicted that Katrina would intensify to hurricane strength before landfall, and hurricane watches and warnings were issued 31.5 hours and 19.5 hours before landfall, respectively — only slightly less than the target thresholds of 36 and 24 hours.
On the morning of August 26, at 10 a.m. CDT (1500 UTC), Katrina had strengthened to a Category 3 storm in the Gulf of Mexico. Later that afternoon, the NHC realized that Katrina had yet to make the turn toward the Florida Panhandle and ended up revising the predicted track of the storm from the panhandle to the Mississippi coast.
On August 26, the state of Mississippi activated its National Guard in preparation of the storm's landfall. Additionally, the state government activated its Emergency Operations Center the next day, and local governments began issuing evacuation orders. By 7:00 p.m. EDT on August 28, 11 counties and eleven cities issued evacuation orders, a number which increased to 41 counties and 61 cities by the following morning. Moreover, 57 emergency shelters were established on coastal communities, with 31 additional shelters available to open if needed.
See also: Hurricane preparedness for New Orleans
By August 26, the possibility of unprecedented cataclysm was already being considered. Many of the computer models had shifted the potential path of Katrina 150 miles westward from the Florida Panhandle, putting the city of New Orleans right in the center of their track probabilities; the chances of a direct hit were forecast at 17%, with strike probability rising to 29% by August 28.
Greater New Orleans area
Main articles: Hurricane Katrina effects by region and Hurricane Katrina death toll by locality Impact
Hurricane Katrina first made landfall on August 25, 2005 in South Florida where it hit as a Category 1 hurricane, with 80 mph (130 km/h) winds. Rainfall was heavy in places and exceeded 14 inches (350 mm) in Homestead, Florida,
South Florida and Cuba
On August 29 Hurricane Katrina made landfall near Buras, Louisiana with 125 mph (205 km/h) winds, as a strong Category 3 storm. However, as it had only just weakened from Category 4 strength and the radius of maximum winds was large, it is possible that sustained winds of Category 4 strength briefly impacted extreme southeastern Louisiana. Although the storm surge to the east of the path of the eye in Mississippi was higher, a very significant surge affected the Louisiana coast. The height of the surge is uncertain because of a lack of data, although a tide gauge in Plaquemines Parish indicated a storm tide in excess of 14 feet (4.3 m) and a 12 foot (3 m) storm surge was recorded in Grand Isle.
Main articles: Effect of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans and Levee failures in Greater New Orleans, 2005 New Orleans
Main article: Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Mississippi Mississippi
Although Hurricane Katrina made landfall well to the west, Alabama and the Florida Panhandle were both affected by tropical-storm force winds and a storm surge varying from 16 to 12 ft (5-3 m) around Mobile Bay,
Southeast United States
Hurricane Katrina weakened as it moved inland, but tropical-storm force gusts were recorded as far north as Fort Campbell, Kentucky on August 30, and the winds damaged trees in New York. The remnants of the storm brought high levels of rainfall to a wide swath of the eastern United States, and rain in excess of 2 inches (50 mm) fell in parts of 20 states.
Other U.S. States and Canada
See also: Social effects of Hurricane Katrina, Political effects of Hurricane Katrina, Hurricane Katrina disaster relief, and IDPs in the United States
Main article: Economic effects of Hurricane Katrina Economic effects
Main article: Environmental effects of Hurricane Katrina Environmental effects
Further information: Effect of Hurricane Katrina on New Orleans
Shortly after the hurricane moved away on August 30, 2005, some residents of New Orleans who remained in the city began looting stores. Looters were in search of food and water that were not available to them through any other means as well as non essential items.
Looting and violence
Within the United States and as delineated in the National Response Plan, disaster response and planning is first and foremost a local government responsibility. When local government exhausts its resources, it then requests specific additional resources from the county level. The request process proceeds similarly from the county to the state to the federal government as additional resource needs are identified. Many of the problems that arose developed from inadequate planning and back-up communications systems at various levels.
Some disaster recovery response to Katrina began before the storm, with Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) preparations that ranged from logistical supply deployments to a mortuary team with refrigerated trucks. A network of volunteers began rendering assistance to local residents and residents emerging from New Orleans and surrounding Parishes as soon as the storm made landfall, and has continued for more than six months after the storm.
Of the 60,000 people stranded in New Orleans, the Coast Guard rescued more than 33,500.
Main article: Criticism of government response to Hurricane Katrina Criticism of government response
Main article: International response to Hurricane Katrina Non-governmental organization response
Main article: 2005 levee failures in Greater New Orleans Analysis of New Orleans levee failures
Main article: Media involvement in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina Media involvement
See also: List of retired Atlantic hurricanes
Because of the large loss of life and property along the Gulf Coast, the name Katrina was officially retired on April 6, 2006 by the World Meteorological Organization at the request of the U.S. government. It was replaced by Katia on List III of the Atlantic hurricane naming lists, which will next be used in the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season.
Hurricane on the Bayou
List of Category 5 Atlantic hurricanes
List of notable Atlantic hurricanes
List of storms in the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season
List of tribute songs to Hurricane Katrina See also
Survivor and eyewitness accounts
ImanusT (Crisis Relief Non-Profit Organization)
Docs in a Box
Project: Katrina Volunteers is a single web location to facilitate the sharing of experiences by volunteers of the hurricane relief effort. The site is also part of an effort to help those who are thinking of going to the Gulf Coast an opportunity to see and hear the stories of those who have already volunteered their time. Volunteers have found that spending their vacation in the Gulf region is a life-changing experience, and the website will be a place to share their experiences and to stay connected to the community that needs continuing support. The website is easy to use, and allows links to videos by volunteers and a discussion page to post dialogue and commentary about volunteering and volunteer experiences. The website is run by a grassroots group of volunteers who want to help the recovery efforts.Posted by yummy255 at 9:10 AM
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- Levee failures
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